Presentation on theme: "Formation of the Solar System"— Presentation transcript:
1 Formation of the Solar System How did Earth form?
2 Collapsing Interstellar Clouds Stars and planets form from clouds of gas and dust, called interstellar cloudsConsist of gas: Hydrogen and HeliumUsually low density, can condense due to gravity and form a star or a planet.
3 At first the collapse is slow, but it accelerates and the cloud soon becomes much denser at its center.It will spin faster and faster as it contracts (ice skater pull arms to body to spin faster)Eventually slows and cloudbecomes flattened, becominga rotating disk.
4 Sun and Planet Formation The disk of dust and gas that formed the Sun and planets is known as the solar nebula.Dense concentration at center became the Sun.
5 Temperature differed, Hotter at center and cooler at edges of disk Due to temp differences different compounds were able to condense depending on distance from Sun
7 Overall result was the planets Condensed material accumulated to from larger bodies.Planetismals – Space object built of solid particles that can form planets through collisions and mergesOverall result was the planets
8 Early PlanetsJupiter formed first, using much of the material around itThis is why Jupiter is the largest PlanetThe sun took most of the gas from the inner planetsThis is why they are solid with few moons
9 Debris Most collided into planets or was sent out of the solar system. The remnants remain in the asteroid belt between Jupiter and Mars.Jupiter's gravitational force prevents them from forming into a planet.
10 Asteroids Rocky remnants of the early solar system Most are less than 1 km in diameter, move slowlyC – Type (Carbon)S – Type (Silica)M - Type (Iron-Nickel)Asteroid Belt(Between Marsand Jupiter)
11 Meteoroid – asteroid that begins to fall towards Earth Meteor – Meteoroid that begins to burn up in Earth’s atmosphereMeteorite – A meteor that does not complete burn up in atmosphere and strikes Earth’s surfaceLess than 100 m in diameterMove at fast speeds
12 Comets Small bodies of rock and ice that have highly eccentric orbits Periodic Comets – repeatedly return to inner solar systemHalley’s Comet (76 Years, last seen 1985)Kuiper Belt – Located Beyond NeptuneCome very close to Pluto in Aphelion, near sun at Perihelion
13 Parts of a Comet Coma Nucleus Tail Extended volume of glowing gas Small solid core of the cometTail
14 Comet tails ALWAYS point away from sun When come within 3 AU of the sun begin to evaporateGas and dust pushed away by radiation from sunMeteor Shower – Earth intersects cometary orbit. Particles burn up in atmosphere