Late Nineteenth Century European Thought and Society 1850(-ish)-1900
The Second Industrial Revolution Began in the 1850s First Industrial Revolution was in developments on textiles, iron, and steam power Second Industrial Revolution was in steel, chemicals, electricity, and oil Internal combustion engine replaces the steam engine Leads to invention of the automobile: G. Daimler, German engineer w/ French patent Consumer society takes shape:
The Second Industrial Revolution Depression of 1873 European economies expanded 1850-73 Technological advances lower food costs But competition slows down economy Bad investments cause banks to fail Causes ripple effect throughout economy Workers unemployed Growth of trade unions and socialist parties New indust consumer goods incr D brings econ out of stagnation
The Second Industrial Revolution Middle Class (bourgeoisie) continues to expand Middle class gains political power Rise of white collar workers (petite bourgeoisie/petty bourgeois) Higher social mobility through public education Politically and socially Conservative often afraid of losing status because of economic downturn
More on the further divisions w/in M.C. Topmost: Banking, industry and large scale commerce. along w/ aristocracy accounts for about 5% of pop. Have aristocratic aspirations. Quid pro quo: trade titles, homes, elegance for $ Middle MC: moderately successful industrialists, merchants, lawyers, doctors Additions: experts w/ specialized knowledge engineers, architects, chemists, accountants Training, certification, prof. orgs to defend and promo their interests Also public and private managers:bureaucrats
Slicing the MC pie. white collar workers (petite bourgeoisie/ petty bourgeois) Higher social mobility through public education Traveling salesmen, bookkeepers, store managers, clerks, elementary school teachers, nurses, dentists. Politically and socially Conservative often afraid of losing status because of economic downturn
Middle class values The Victorian era of morality and propriety Strict and demanding: traditional Christianity reaffirmed. Drinking and gambling=vices; sexual purity, fidelity=virtue Know right from wrong and act accordingly
Servant-keeping classes: $ expenditures 10% meat 25% on food and drink 50% of income on food and servants at all levels of m.c.--.dinner parties Education: more crucial educ=adv. ed.= expense Culture/leisure: books, music, travel. Read novels, attend symphony and opera, dutiful daughter @ piano, packaged foreign tour.
Working classes About 80% belonged to working classes W.C.: people whose livelihoods depend on on physical labor and who did not employ domestic servants Some are still small landowning peasants and hired farm hands. GB:8% Germany:25% Fr:50% highly skilled, semi-skilled, unskilled hierarchy exists
Highly skilled About 15% of w.c. labor aristocracy Earned about 67% of what low mc did but 2Xs what low wc did printers, masons, construction bosses, factory foremen, cabinetmakers, jewelers Under stress/pressure by increased mechanization of craft in factories Very strait-laced, puritanical values and behavior. Distinct from lower w.c. and shared w/ m.c. Family, frugality, education. Temperance and fidelity. the path to the brothel leads through the tavern
Semi skilled Some factory workers. Carpenters, bricklayers, pipe fitters, Very complex composition Highly volatile
Unskilled Day-laborers: longshoremen, wagon drivers (teamsters), teenagers, helpers. Also largest group:domestic servants. In GB 15% (1911) Morality the drink, sports (gambling), music halls (mixed; cf opera and theatre of mc) Christian yes, but not active. Conservative institutions. not our kind of thing.
The Second Industrial Revolution Urbanization continues late 19 th century More people from the countryside move to cities Governments introduce urban planning Housing for workers Better sewers Public health (better w/c health/housing=m/c better health and political stability Public worksjobs! Wide blvdsless danger of revolution barricades
Women in Late Nineteenth Century Europe Women still considered property of husbands and fathers Fathers still arranged marriage Earnings went to husbands and fathers Unable to own property until late 1800s Birth control illegal Educational opportunities still unavailable until late 1800s Teaching only career option for women
Women in Late Nineteenth Century Europe Middle Class women Cult of Domesticity Middle class women expected to stay home Women considered morally superior Charged with religious instruction of children Sexual repression? Middle class women begin to have fewer children Children begin to be more expensive So there would be more money for consumer goods
Women in Late Nineteenth Century Europe Rise of Womens movement Middle class women get involved Demanded political equality Suffragettes in Britain demand the right to vote Similar movements in France and Germany Women demanded reforms in public health and working conditions
Stop here for now (ch. 22 and ch. 24 DBQ EXAM! Thanks! And good luck!
Jews in Late Nineteenth Century Europe Discrimination against Jews for most of European history Jews gain emancipation during the 19 th century in parts of Western Europe Able to live where they liked Full legal and political rights Allowed to enter professions Anti-Semitism also becomes popular Zionist movement begins. Herzl
Workers in Late Nineteenth Century Europe Workers demand better working conditions Demand better wages, better hours Demand social legislation Demand the right to organize into unions Workers gain voting rights throughout most of Europe Marxism remained popular to workers
Reaction to Marxism Ideas of Marxism spread throughout Europe International Working Mens Association Endorsed by Karl Marx Governments in Europe and US afraid of Marxism Socialism Economic system calling for government ownership of industries
Reaction to Marxism Britain Unions become legal in 1880s Fabian Society Believed in gradual ownership of industries Interested in government ownership of gas and water Believed in social legislation
Reaction to Marxism France Marxism a great influence on French labor movements French workers resorted to strikes Labor unions did not participate in the government
Reaction to Marxism Germany Social Democratic Party (SPD) Formed in 1875 Advanced ideas of Marx Bismarck considered SPD a threat Banned the SPD as a political party Passed social legislation in 1883 to undermine SPD Health insurance Workers compensation Old age pensions
Reaction to Marxism Russia Industrialized much later than Western Europe Encountered the same problems Absolute monarchy prevented necessary reforms No constitution or representative government No civil liberties
Reaction to Marxism Russia Government repression encourages revolutionary movements Social Revolutionary Party wanted to end industrialization Constitutional Democratic Party (Cadets) wanted liberal reforms
Reaction to Marxism Russia Government repression encourages revolutionary movements Social Revolutionary Party wanted to end industrializationreturn to rural life Constitutional Democratic Party (Cadets) wanted liberal reforms Social Democrat PartyMarxists split
Reaction to Marxism Lenin (1870-1924) Original name Vladimir Ulyanov Brother executed for plot to assassinate Czar Alexander III Joined revolutionary groups Arrested and exiled to Siberia in 1895 Lived in exile in Switzerland in 1900 Became leader of the Bolsheviks, a Marxist revolutionary group
Reaction to Marxism Russia Revolution of 1905 Defeat in war with Japan adds to worker unrest Czars troops fire on workers demonstrating on the Winter Palace Showed workers and peasants no longer trusted the Czar Leads to government reforms Constitution and parliament Some land reforms But no one is satisfied
Late 19 th Century European Thought Science becomes dominant in European society Religion starts to go in decline State becomes in charge of education Gets into conflict with churches Kulturkampf (Culture Struggle) Bismarck saw Catholic Church as a threat to government
Late 19 th Century European Thought Literature Writers describe life as it really is--realism Reaction to industrialization Shaw, Ibsen, Flaubert Music Composers look for new musical forms Stravinsky, Debussy Philosophy Reaction against Enlightenment forms of rationality Reaction against traditional views of morality
Conclusion Industrialization continues to affect European society Women begin to demand equal rights Governments react to Marxism in different ways Industrialization affects European culture
Kagan, p. 821 In 1889, the Eiffel Tower was built, originally as a temporary structure for the international trade exposition of that year. Not all the new structures of Paris bespoke the impact of middle-class commerce and the reign of iron and steel, however. Between 1873 and 1914, the French Roman Catholic Church oversaw the construction of the Basilica of the Sacred Heart high atop Montmartre as a act of national penance for the sins that had led to French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. Those two landmarksthe Eiffel Tower and the Basilica of the Sacred Heart – visibly symbolized the social and political divisions between liberals and conservatives in the 3 rd Republic
If you were asked to compare these two structures as reflections of the social and political tensions present in late 19 th century France, what evidence would you use from these readings.