2 The Past Perfect Tense: S. PastS. PresentS. Future.___ _______ ________ _________ _____Present PerfectPast PerfectWhen I got home yesterday, Mark had already left.We have two actions: “I got home” and “Mark left” The question is: which action happened before I got home? “Mark had already left”. This action happened before the action in the Simple Past!
3 Now, do you remember this? I have worked at CCAA for many years.I worked at CCAA for many yearsIn the first example, I still work at CCAA. In the second, however, I do NOT work at CCAA anymore!
4 There is no Past Perfect without a Simple Past!! Formation: HAD + P.P (past participle)Examples: I had studiedYou had boughtHe had overcomeWhen in doubt, make good use of the good old time line.
5 S. PresentS. Past____ ______ _______ ___Past PerfectPresent PerfectUsage:We use the Past Perfect Tense when 2 actions took place in the past . The action that happened before the Simple Past is the one in the Past Perfect.Isn´t that simple?
6 Let´s pay attention to the sentences below: Mom had cooked dinner when I called her yesterday.He had finished the project when I talked to him.We had had our lunch when Mary got to the pub.I had just traveled to Japan when Mr. Nakajima asked me to bring him some imported goods.All the actions in the Past Perfect happened before the actions in the Simple Past.
7 Now observe this:He had finished the project when I talked to him.He finished the project when I talked to him.Can you tell me the difference between these 2 sentences?In the first example, the project was finished before I talked to him.In the second, however, the project was finished after I talked to him.
8 Exercises:hadWhen I arrived home yesterday, mom _________ already ___________ dinner. (make)2. By the time it _________ to rain, all the students had gone home. (start)3. When Sue’s mother realized what Sue ________ to her friends, it ______ really late and nothing else could be done. (do) (be)4. By the time my brother turned on the TV, the show __________________. (already; begin)madestartedhad donewashad already begun