2 Causes of Late 19th Century European Imperialism EconomicIndustrializationRaw materials needed for European industriesOil in the Middle EastRubber in AfricaTextiles in IndiaEuropean CapitalismHigher returns for investmentsLess developed areas gave higher dividendsTo gain access to markets
3 Causes of Late 19th Century European Imperialism PoliticalMaintain the balance of powerTo control strategic areas like sea lanes, access to marketsStatus symbolsGermany takes colonies to be like other European powersCultural and ReligiousBelief in cultural or racial “superiority”Desire to spread Christianity to “heathens”To spread “civilization”
4 Britain Largest colonial empire “Sun never sets on the British Empire” Colonies established to protect trading interests in Africa and AsiaTwo kinds of colonies“White” Colonies (Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa) given self-rule“Non-white” Colonies (India, Africa) under direct rule
5 France Acquired Algeria in 1830 Took over Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia) by the 1880sExpanded into Western Africa in the 1880sTook colonies to make up for loss of Alsace-Lorraine in 1870
6 Germany Bismarck originally opposed colonial expansion Unnecessary for GermanyDid not want to threaten France or BritainGermany took colonies in 1880s for status symbolsIn Africa and Asia
7 United States Did not get involved in European affairs Became colonial power after 1898Spanish-American WarU.S. gains control of Puerto Rico, Guam, PhilippinesMonroe Doctrine allows US to extend influence into Latin America
8 Scramble for Africa Europe had been interested in Africa for centuries Through the slave tradeMuch of Africa still unexplored until 1880sEuropean influence restricted to coastlineTechnology allows Europeans to explore African interiorSteamboats, Suez Canal, advances in medicine
9 Scramble for Africa By 1914, 90% of Africa under European control France in Northern (Algeria) and Western AfricaBritain from Egypt to South AfricaBelgium in the CongoItaly in Libya and Eastern AfricaPortugal in southern AfricaGermany in scattered areasBerlin Conference in 1885 sets ground rules for European colonization of Africa
10 Scramble for Africa Consequences Traditional way of life disrupted Economic exploitation of AfricansEuropean racism imported into AfricaSpread of European cultureSpread of Western technology
11 Belgian Congo or Congo Free State The Belgian Congo Congo Free StateThe Congo Free State was held as the personal property of King Leopold II of Belgium from 1876 to 1908.1876: Leopold organizes a meeting in Brussels to discuss a plan “to open to civilization the only part of our globe where Christianity has not yet penetrated and to pierce the darkness which envelops the whole population.”
12 King Leopold II and the Congo Free State “I do not want to miss a good chance of getting a slice of this magnificent African cake.” --Leopold II (after Brussels conference)“
13 Congo Free State1884: Bismarck calls European powers to Berlin for a conference that leads to the Scramble for Africa.BC established the rules for conquest of Africa.Leopold is given complete control over the Congo Free State; in return he guarantees free trade rights: no monopolies; no taxes and tariffs, no restriction on trade.1908: Leopold bequeathed the CFS to Belgium for 150m francs.
14 Berlin Conference“Here is Russia and here is France, with Germany in the middle. That is my map of Africa.” --Bismarck
16 Belgian CongoLeopold’s rule resulted in the torture and murder of an estimated six to ten million Congolese between 1888 and 1908.The population of the Congo was reduced by half.Ivory became a Belgian monopoly. Rubber from rubber trees for tires very lucrative.
17 Belgian CongoThe rubber harvest was entirely worked through slave labor. Reports of amputation and torture.Congo Reform Association established in 1903 by Roger Casement (friend of Joseph Conrad’s).Casement got Conrad to write a letter about conditions in the Congo: “It is an extraordinary thing that the conscience of Europe which seventy years ago …put down the slave trade on humanitarian grounds tolerates the Congo state today.”
19 Causes and Justifications for Partition Imperialism--Capitalism and Industrial RevolutionSocial DarwinismMorality and the Civilizing MissionEuropean Balance of PowerAfrican Resistance to Merchants spurs military conquestGreed