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The Hodge Podge Kingdom

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Presentation on theme: "The Hodge Podge Kingdom"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Hodge Podge Kingdom
PROTISTS The Hodge Podge Kingdom

2 Protists are Divided into 3 Catagories
The animal-like protists The plant-like protists The fungi-like protists

3 Protists are Eukaryotic Can be unicellular or multicellular
Can be motile or not (flagella and cilia) Can be photoautotrophs or chemoheterotrophs or both Contain 2 or more chromosomes with many histones and other proteins.

4 Animal-like Protists Phylum Sarcodina (Locomotion is via psuedopodia)
Amoebas: Naked, soft-bodied cells that live in freshwater, marine and soil. Foraminiferans (many chambered test; composed of CaCO3): primarily marine Heliozoans: Have fine needle-like psuedopodia radiating from body like sun rays. Largely fresh water Radiolarians (test is composed of silicon dioxide) found in open, shallow waters.

5 Amoebida

6 Foraminiferans

7 Heliozoida

8 Radiolarian

9 More Radiolarians

10 Sarcodina Use ameoboid movement made possible by cytoplasmic streaming to get around. Endoplasm (inner) pushes on ectoplasm (outer) to create the arm-like extention. Because they live in an aquatic environment they need a contractile vacuole to regulate water pressure inside the cell.

11 Diseases associated with Sarcodina
Ameobic dysentery: Entameoba histolytica Reproduction - Binary fission - Budding - formation of cysts during times of stress.

12 Animal-like protists (cont.)
Phylum Ciliophora Paramecium Reproduces via conjugation and binary fission. Important parts include oral groove, pellicle, mouth pore, gullet, anal pore, macronucleus and micronucleus.

13 Animal-like protists: Ciliaphora cont.
Reproduction: Conjugation followed by binary fission Binary fission alone Parameciums divide along a transverse line

14 Paramecium

15 Cilliate (Bursaria)

16 Animal-like Protists (cont.)
Phylum Mastigophora Movement via flagella Trypanosoma brucei (African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness) Vector: tsetse fly Trypanosoma cruzi (Chaga’s disease) Vector: Kissing bug Trichonomas vaginalis Giardia lamblia (giardiasis)

17 Trypanosoma

18 Tsetse Fly

19 Giardia

20 Animal-like Protists (cont.)
Phylum Sporozoa Malaria: life cycle Toxoplasmosis

21 Anopheles mosquito


23 Toxoplama gondii (intracellular)


25 Plant-like Protists Characteristics Autotrophs
Lack tissue differentiation Unicellular and muticellular Aquatic Contain pyrenoids (organelles that synthesize and store starch.

26 Plant-like Protists cont.
Structure of thallus: body portion of the algae. Body structure is divided into 3 types. Unicellular E.g. phytoplankton Colonial E.g. volvox Filamentous e.g. Spirogyra Multicellular e.g. Ulva

27 Plant-like Protists cont.
Classification They are classified based on color, type of chlorophyll, form of food-storage and cell wall composition. Reproduction Some reproduce only via asexual reproduction while other have both asexual and sexual reproduction. See later slides for details.

28 Plant-like Protists cont.
Phylum: Euglenophyta Euglena (euglenoid) Photosynthetic pigments Chlorophylls a and b, carontenoids, xanthophyll. Movement by flagella. Stigma detects light and euglena move towards it. Can be heterotrophic if deprived of light.


30 Plant-like Protists cont.
Phylum: Chrysophyta (the golden algae) Yellow-green algae Most are fresh water algae but a few are found in a marine environment. golden color due to the pigment fucoxanthin (a carotenoid) which masks the chlorophyll Stores much of its surplus energy as oil and are important in the formation of petroleum deposits


32 Plant-like Protists cont.
Bacillariophyta: the diatoms Abundant in both freshwater and marine. Have shells that are pill box-like that consist of silicon dioxide. Each half of the shell is called a valve. Some shells are centric (circular or triangular) and are marine. Others are pennate (rectangular) and are found in freshwater. Move by threads that attach to water surface.



35 Plant-like Protists (cont.)
Phylum Dinoflagellata dinoflagellates red tides (Gonyaulax catanella) produces neurotoxin Some have bioluminescence (Noctiluca) All have 2 flagella, are unicellular, mostly marine and contain pigments chlorophyll, carotenoids, and other red pigments.

36 Noctiluca scintillans


38 Plant-like Protists (cont.)
Phylum: Rhodophyta (the red algae) but may appear green, purple, or greenish-blk. Multicellular Tropical waters and along rocky coasts in colder waters. Pigments: chlorohyll, phycobilins (red/blue) Good at absorbing green and blue/green light waves which can penetrate below 100 m in water.

39 Rhodophyta cont. Some have cell walls coated with a sticky substance called carageenan (used in cosmetics, gelatin capsules and cheese). The cell walls contain agar which is extracted and used to make media for culturing microorganisms.



42 Plant-like Protists (cont.)
Phylum: Phaeophyta (the brown algae) All are multicellular Largest are kelp Pigments include chlorophyll and fucoxanthin Food is stored as laminarin Macrocysitis cell walls contain alginate (used as a stabilizer in ice cream).

43 Plant-like Protists (cont.)
Phylum: Phaeophyta (cont.) Parts of kelp Body is called thallus “Roots” are called holdfasts “Stems” are called stipe. “Leaves” are called blades. Air bladders keep thallus afloat allowing access to light Sargassum serve as floating ecosystem Contains a commercially important substance called alginate. Alginate is used as a stabilizer in most ice creams.

44 The Sargasso Sea

45 Plant-like Protists(cont.)
Phylum: Chlorophyta (the green algae) It is believed that this group gave rise to land plants. Most diverse (7000 identified species) Can be unicellular or multicellular, colonial or sheets. Found in fresh water and marine environments Pigment mostly chorophyll Store food as starch. Many reproductive methods See Ulva for life cycle Often have symbiotic relationships with fungi (lichens).

46 Fungi-like Protists Chytrids (Phylum Chtidiomycota)
Water molds (Phylum Oomycota) Slime molds Acrasiomycota: Cellular slime molds Myxomycota: Plasmodial slime molds (acellular)

47 Chytrids (Phylum Chtidiomycota)
Are believed to be the evolutionary link between protists and fungi (Share enzymes and biochemical pathways). Live in fresh water and marine Some are saprobic decomposers while others are parasites. Single-celled species produce flagellated asexual spores (1 reason it is in Protista). Chitin reinforces cell wall. Cell walls are sieve like between cells allowing flow of cytoplasm throughout mycelium.

48 Water molds (Phylum Oomycota)
Distantly related to red algae Reproduction Produce flagellated asexual zoospores which germinate into long thread-like cells forming a thallus. Sexual reproduction occurs when a connecting tube is formed between oogonia and antheridia. Zygote (2n) develops into new thallus. Key decomposers of aquatic habitats Some parasitize Phytophtlora infestans caused “late blight” and the great Irish potato famine. Blight is a disease of plants characterized by decay and discoloring of leaves.

49 Fungi-like protists cont.
Slime molds contain 2 phylum Acrasiomycota: Cellular slime molds Live as haploid cells that move like amoebas. Asexually reproduce. Sexual reproduction rare or absent. When food/water is scarce a chemical is released causing them to gather into a pseudoplasmodium. Pseudoplasmodium produces fruiting body which produces haploid spores.

50 Acrasiomycota fruit bodies

51 Fungi-like protists cont
Mxyomycota: plasmodial (acellular) slime mold Acellular because the plamodium (group of feeding cells) lack cell walls & appear as a mass of cytoplasm with thousands of nuclei. Each nuclei is diploid. Mass phagocytizes decaying leaves/debris. When food/water is scarce the plasmodium crawls to an exposed area and forms a stalked fruiting body which undergoes meiosis to produce haploid spores. These spores will give rise to haploid reproductive cells which fuse to form a diploid nucleus. Mitosis occurs but cytokinesis never does.

52 Fuligo septica: The dog vomit slime mold

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