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Systemic Pathology. Neoplasia -Abnormal cell growth.

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Presentation on theme: "Systemic Pathology. Neoplasia -Abnormal cell growth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Systemic Pathology


3 Neoplasia -Abnormal cell growth

4 Lipoma

5 Polyps

6 Malignant Melanoma

7 Glioma

8 Examples Tumor TypeCell/Tissue of OriginBenign TumorsMalignant Tumors Mesenchymal tumors Fibroblast Fat Cell Blood Vessels Smooth muscle cell Striated muscle cell Cartilage Bone Cell Fibroma Lipoma Hemangioma Leiomyoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Chondoma Osteoma Fibrosarcoma Liposarcoma Angiosarcoma Leiomyosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Chondrosarcoma Osteosarcoma Epithelial tumorsSquamous epithelium Transitional epithelium Glandular/ductal epithelium Neuroendocrine cells Liver cell Kidney cell Epithelioma (papilloma) Transitional cell papilloma Adenoma Carcinoid Liver cell adenoma Renal cell adenoma Squamous cell carcinoma Transitional cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Oat cell carcinoma Liver cell carcinoma Renal cell carcinoma Blood cells and lymphocytes White blood stem cells Lymphoid cells Plasma cells Leukemia Lymphoma Multiple myeloma Tumors of neural cell precursors NeuroblastGanglioneuromaNeuroblastoma Tumors of glial cells and neural supporting cells Glial cells Meningial cells Schwann cells Meningioma Schwannoma Glioma Malignant Schwannoma Germ cell tumorsEmbryonic cellsTeratomaEmbryonal carcinoma Teratocarcinoma

9 Characteristics of Benign NeoplasmsCharacteristics of Malignant Neoplasms Slow growthFast growth Good prognosisPoor prognosis Does not invade surrounding tissue. Often surrounded by capsule of connective tissue. Invades and infiltrates surrounding tissue (forms metastases) Strong resemblance to cell type of origin. Highly differentiated uniform cell population. Various degrees of deviation from cell type of origin: Well differentiated = reasonable resemblance Poorly differentiated = some resemblance Anaplastic = no resemblance Normal nuclei, well developed cytoplasm (nuclear:cytoplasm ratio is 1:4 to 1:6) Large nuclei, little cytoplasm (higher nuclear:cytoplasm ratio than normal cells, about 1:1) Pleomorphic cell population (variation in size/shape of cells/nuclei) Normal amount of chromatinStructurally abnormal, wrong number of chromosomes Only a few mitotic cellsLots of mitotic cells Benign VS Malignant

10 Metastasis

11 Dysplasia

12 Carcinogenesis A result of accumulated mutations. 3 steps: Initiation, Promotion, Progression Mutations can: Activate oncogenes Result in loss of Tumor suppressor gene Result in Incorrect expression of genes regulating apoptosis Affect other related genetic mechanisms

13 Clinical Manifestations Obstruction Pressure Cachexia Paraneoplastic Syndrome

14 Diagnosis

15 Staging and Grading For classifying tumors Staging: tumor size and spread. (TNM system) Grading: state of differentiation (rated I to IV)

16 Treatment

17 The End

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