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Chapter 4 Adolescence. Physical and Sexual Development Adolescence - period between childhood and adulthood (varies from culture to culture) US -- preparation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Adolescence. Physical and Sexual Development Adolescence - period between childhood and adulthood (varies from culture to culture) US -- preparation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Adolescence

2 Physical and Sexual Development Adolescence - period between childhood and adulthood (varies from culture to culture) US -- preparation for adulthood African nations (developing) -- child to adult, no transition Initiation rites - ceremonies or rituals admitting you to a new status ex - b-days (16,18, 21) G. Stanley Hall - 1904 storm and stress - see freedom but havent obtained it

3 Sect. 1 cont. Later theorists say the transition is much smoother Margaret Mead - stated that adolescence is an enjoyable time and 57% say it was positive Robert Havighurst challenges in adolescence (p. 95), some examples include - gender roles, relationships, emotional independence

4 Physical development Puberty - sexual maturation - marks an end to childhood girls 8-10, boys 9-16 12-13 menarche - 1st menstrual cycle, can get pregnant within 12 to 18 months pregnancy can occur 12-13 spermarche - males achieve 1st ejaculation Growth spurt lasts 3 months longer for boys

5 End of sect.1 Asynchrony - growth of body parts uneven - out of proportion Boys who mature early - looked at more positive Girls who mature early - can be negative Surprisingly sexual activity has increased but other sexual behavior is similar to that of the 70s

6 Personal Development The transition from childhood to adulthood involves changes in patterns of reasoning and moral thinking, as well as the development of ones identity COGNITIVE development for adolescence Jean Piaget - from 11-12, most peoples thinking become more abstract, problem solving. Rationalization - adolescence deal with emotional feelings that may be unpleasant by preserving their own self-esteem BLAME

7 Cognitive dev. Cont. Changes in thinking will change personality - they may be too idealistic or rebellious Messiah complex - believe they can save the world from evil David Elkinds problems of adolescnece 1. Find fault with authority 2. Argue 3. Indecisive - cant make a decision 4. Hypocrisy - have ideals but wont act 5. Self- consciousness 6. Invulnerability - dont have to live by the same rules

8 Moral development Start to have changes in relationships and changes in dev. - college years Identity dev. - personality changes Erik Erickson - key to adolescence is identity identity crisis - inner conflict in which they worry about themselves, resolving this achieves a sense of self Kids have many roles and this can lead to role confusion

9 More on sect. 2 James Marcia work (1996) 4 groups trying to achieve identity 1. Identity moratorium adolescence - considering issues, no commitment 2. Identity foreclosure adolescence - firm commitment on issues with others involvement 3. Identity confuses or diffused - no serious thoughts to making any decisions 4. Identity achievement - considered many identities and have made choices/commitments

10 More on identity AC Peterson - crisis not normal, when there is crisis there are outside influences Albert Bandura - human development is a process, develops by interacting with others SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Margaret Mead - Social environment and identity is a continuous process

11 Social Development Changes in adolescence social relationships, more influence from peers Role of the family - main task is to become independent of their families - build an identity Role of peers - give acceptance Clique - small exclusive group within a large group - closeness, defining identity, confidence, values and eventual independence from family However it can be negative - Conformity

12 Difficulties during adolescence Suicide increases, illusion of invulnerability, acts of juvenile delinquency, teen pregnancy, drug abuse, underachievement Causes of teenage depression: Loss of loved one, break down of family, not feeling accepted by peers Forms depression takes: anger, rebellion, hyperactivity, with drawl from friends Eating disorders Anorexia Nervosa - refusing to eat Bulimia - binge eating and purging

13 Section 4 - Gender Roles Gender identity - ones physical and biological make-up Gender role - the set of behaviors that society considers appropriate for each sex. Roles vary by society and over time Gender stereotypes - oversimplified or distorted generalization of male and female Androgynous - combining or blending traditionally male or female characteristics

14 Gender differences Personality - males more confident than females in tasks stereotyped as masculine. Females more confident when given feedback Aggression - females more verbally aggressive and males more physical Why? Society expectation and lower levels of serotonin Communication styles - men talk more, woman hedge ( kind of), woman use disclaimers (Im not sure), woman use tag questions (Okay?) Nonverbal - female submission and warmth Male - dominance and status Females more sensitive to nonverbal cues

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