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EE 399 1 LECTURE 4 REPORT STRUCTURE AND COMPONENTS Electrical Engineering Dept King Saud University
EE 399 2 Objectives / Contents – Results – Discussions & Conclusions n Report Preparation – Writing – Placement of Graphics – Figure Captions – References – Proof Readings – Important Issues: In Brief n State of the Course & Training n Basic Issues: – A Good Report – Audience – Organization: General, Plan – Document Layout: General, Format Examples 1 & 2 n Report Structure: – Titles – Abstracts – Introductions / Backgrounds – Methods – Apparatus & Procedures
EE 399 3 What is a good report? n Meets the audience’s needs n Well organised n Readable n Answers the questions: – What is the purpose of the document? – What is to be achieved? Basic Issues
EE 399 4 Audience n Documents must meet the audience’s needs n So: – Who are the audience – What do they know about the subject – What do they need to know – What will they do with the information Basic Issues
EE 399 5 Organisation: General n Most difficult part is getting started n Due to difficulties getting organised n So, – Plan the layout of your document – Plan the layout of each section – Start writing Basic Issues
EE 399 6 Organization: Why plan? n Easier to start writing n Provides a framework for the document n Helps you get organised n Can be in sentences, words, diagrams Basic Issues
EE 399 7 Document Layout: n Beginning – Title – Abstract – Introduction n Middle – Sections and sub-topics, figures, tables, etc. n End – Conclusion &/or summary – References – Appendices General Basic Issues
EE 399 8 Format Example 1 The following outline is good (although a little simplistic) – 1.0 Introduction – 2.0 Methods and Apparatus – 3.0 Results – 4.0 Discussion and Conclusions Document Layout: Basic Issues
EE 399 9 – 1.0 Introduction – 2.0 Methods and Apparatus n 2.1 Description of Models Tested n 2.2 Apparatus n 2.3 Calculations – 3.0 Results – 4.0 Discussion and Conclusions Document Layout: Format Example 2 Basic Issues
EE 399 10 Titles n The title is more important than most people think. use as few words as possible (less than 10) to clearly describe the content of the report n Your task in choosing a title is to use as few words as possible (less than 10) to clearly describe the content of the report. n It is also a good idea to read through your title and think about how it might be interpreted. Report Structure
EE 399 11 Abstracts n The abstract is the second level at which a potential reader can filter out reports that he is or is not interested in reading. n The abstract is generally limited to 250 words (or so). It must be a self-contained description of the report. n It includes a short summary of the study and the most important results and conclusions of the paper. Report Structure
EE 399 12 Introduction / Background n Provide your reader with background information on the topic of your paper. n This section helps to get the reader "up to speed" if necessary. n If your study builds upon work of others or requires the use of accepted formulae, this information should be provided in the introductory section of your paper. Report Structure
EE 399 13 Methods n The methods section is used to discuss the specific approach (methods) used. n Discussion of an experimental apparatus is often included in this section n If the apparatus is sufficiently complex, a separate section is devoted to the apparatus. n You might have section headings such as "Experimental Methods" and "Computational Methods". Report Structure
EE 399 14 Apparatus and Procedures n While the discussion of the apparatus and procedure are sometimes lumped together, this is not a necessity. n Rule of thumb for level of detail: provide sufficient details so that a competent researcher could reproduce the significant aspects of your results. Report Structure
EE 399 15 Results n Take time to investigate trends in your results and to look at many ways of presenting them n Limit presenting the results in the "Results" section, and reserve comments and insights for the Discussion section. n If you have few data to present then you may combine the Results, Discussion, and Conclusions sections. n Likewise, if you have a great deal of data, you may choose to create subheadings. Report Structure
EE 399 16 Discussion and Conclusions n You must present your results with providing any insights useful to the reader n You must interpret the results. How do the results compare with expectations (past research, literature, common sense...)? n Are there any limitations in your apparatus? n What are the implications of your findings? Report Structure
EE 399 17 Writing n Write a draft first n Only the writer needs to be able to understand the draft n Edit it later (leave for a day or two, if possible) n Correcting: – Logic & Organisation – Style & Clarity – Spelling Report Preparation
EE 399 18 Placement of Graphics n As close as possible to the text which refers to it n Conventionally at the top or bottom of the page (unless very small) n Do not wrap text around graphic n If only included for accuracy, may be put in an appendix instead Report Preparation
EE 399 19 Figure Captions n ALWAYS include a figure caption and number n Simple explanation of what the figure (or table) shows n If the figure (or table) is not yours, put the reference number at the end of the caption n Give the source of data (e.g., data from ) Report Preparation
EE 399 20 References n Use a unified system n Always cite sources – Be careful of web sources n Plagiarism = cheating – DO NOT cut-and-paste – Give references Report Preparation
EE 399 21 Proof Reading n Re-read your document, preferably aloud n Check sentence length, structure, and clarity n Use spell checker (do not ignore wiggly red lines!) n Use grammar checker (carefully, with “technical” setting) n Often good to ask someone else to read it (if time permits) Report Preparation
EE 399 22 Important Issues: In Brief 1. Do the experiment 2. Plot the raw data 3. Investigate trends and various data presentations 4. Write an appropriate outline 5. Write the report fairly quickly 6. Let the report sit for at least ONE DAY! 7. Read the report with a critical eye and edit. Report Preparation
EE 399 23 State of the Course: 1 / 2 Conversation & ice breakingIntroduction & GuidelinesLecture 1 Correcting paragraphs with errors Guidelines to Good Writing & Grammar: Assignment 1 Lecture 2 Searching Internet & library Searching, Compiling, Referencing & Ethics: Assignment 2 Lecture 3 Reviewing a sample report to write the abstract & conclusion Report Structure & Components Lecture 4 Practicing converting text into attractive slides. Peer to peer evaluation of presentation Guidelines for Good Presentation: Assignment 3 / 1 st Oral Presentation: Literature Review Lecture 5
EE 399 24 State of the Course: 2 / 2 Practicing interviews. Writing CVs & Guidelines to Successful Interviews: Assignment 4 / Assignment 5 Lecture 6 Practicing preparing: agenda, and minutes; running meetings. Peer to peer evaluation of presentation Group Dynamics & Management Skills: 2 nd Oral Presentation: 1 st Draft of Final Paper Lecture 7 Discussing sample of RFP and sample proposal Guidelines for Writing and Evaluating Proposals: Assignment 6 Lecture 8 Listening to a speech and taking notes. Discussion. Report, slides, & CV. Taking Notes & Writing Letters and Memos: Guest Speaker / Assignment 7, Discussion Session / 3 rd Oral Presentation: Final Lecture 9
EE 399 25 Training Punctuations & GrammarAssignment 1 Searching for a Final PaperAssignment 2 Literature Review for Final PaperAssignment 3 Presentation Of First Draft of Final Paper Report Assignment 4 First Draft of Final Paper ReportAssignment 5 Writing Proposal with CVAssignment 6 Peer Evaluation of ProposalAssignment 7
EE 399 26 QUESTIONS ?
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