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1 Delaware Department of Education
RTI in Behavior and Emotional Regulation Across General, Remedial, and Special Education Daniel J. Reschly Delaware Department of Education May 8, 2007 Reschly RTI

2 Six “Chapters” in this Presentation
Overview of RTI in academics and behavior including multi-tiered systems in both Tier I Behavior: General Education: All Students: Positive Behavior Supports and Classroom Organization and Management Tier II Behavior: Intensive individualized problem solving through stages, graphing, etc., evaluation of success, need for sustained interventions Special education eligibility determination Special education programming Reschly RTI

3 What To Do With Egbert?? 1st Grade, falling behind in reading
Slow progress compared to peers Likely to miss benchmarks related to passing 3rd Grade reading test Distractible, inattentive, disruptive, non-compliant, aggressive Sound Familiar WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? Driven by Federal Legislation Consider NCLB and IDEIA Reschly RTI

4 What To Do With Egbert?? 9th Grade, failing 3 of 5 classes at first 9 weeks Attendance is declining Homework non completion Poor performance on weekly or unit tests Defiant, distractible, inattentive, disruptive, non-compliant Sound Familiar WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? Driven by Federal Legislation Consider NCLB and IDEIA Reschly RTI

5 Can you blame somebody else?
PROBLEM SOLVING CHART Yes Does the *%$# thing work? No Don’t mess with it! You Idiot! Yes Did you mess with it? No No Hide it! Does anyone else know? Yes Will you catch hell? No Yes You poor slob! Ignore it Can you blame somebody else? No Yes NO PROBLEM

6 What Is Response to Intervention (RTI)?
Scientifically-based instruction/interventions matched to student needs Formative evaluation including frequent progress monitoring in relation to benchmarks, with decision rules applied Decisions driven by student RTI, including gen’l ed instruction/intervention, remedial services/individual interventions, sp ed eligibility, placement, annual review and exit Implementation requires: Allocating (aligning) resources to deliver effective interventions that produce improved child outcomes Reschly RTI

7 RTI Model Differences Restricted vs Comprehensive System Wide
LD Identification Do Tiers I and II, then traditional evaluation Or Use RTI in eligibility determination and in the design, implementation, and evaluation of IEPs Academic only or Academic and Behavior False dichotomies: Standard Protocol vs Problem Solving vs Recognition of Both Choices determined by nature of problem Use of both in many situations Reschly RTI

8 Order at: RESPONSE TO Intervention
POLICY CONSIDERATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION Order at: Cost: $15 with discounts for large orders Reschly RTI

9 Purpose of the RTI Process
Improve results in academic, behavioral, and emotional regulation domains, through High quality interventions Formative evaluation Student results drive decisions about needs and intensity of interventions Improve, eliminate disproportionate representation Identification of disabilities through procedures that are valid and connected to effective special ed interventions Improve special education results and increase exit from sp ed Prevention and early identification-intervention Reschly RTI

10 Special Education Placement Effects: High Incidence Disabilities
Treatment/Intervention aEffect Size EMR/Special Classes (IQ 60-75) Special Classes (IQ 75-90) Resource for SLD and E/BD Traditional Placement Practices Have Weak Relationships to Outcomes Special Education as a Solution? Note: Effect size is expressed in SD units, analogous to a z-score Reschly RTI

11 Meaningfulness of Special Education High Incidence Categories (www
Meaningfulness of Special Education High Incidence Categories ( Table 1-13, retrieved Category Prevalence Range Factor of Notes MR: % (NJ) to 3.0% (WV) 7Xs (9 at 0.4) ED: % (AR) to 2.4% (DC) Xs (VT=2.0) LD: % (KY) to 7.7% (OK) Xs Sp/L: 0.5% (HI) to 4.3% (WV) Xs OHI: 0.5% (CA) to 2.4% (RI) Xs All: % (CO) to 15.9% (RI) Xs Notes: Child disability count as a percentage of the population. Reschly RTI

12 Some things do not make sense
Reschly RTI

13 Progression of Research, Policy, and Legal Requirements
RESEARCH: Scientific research with practice demonstrations leading to POLICY: Multiple policy analyses in presented in prestigious reports leading to FEDERAL LAW: Multiple layers of Federal legal requirements leading to STATE LAW: Changes in state rules leading to SCALING UP: Scaling up efforts in states Reschly RTI

14 What Works? See Kavale (2005), Learning Disabilities, 13, 127-138 and other sources
Treatment Effect Size Applied Behavior Analysis CBM+Graphing+Formative Evaluation + reinforcement Explicit Instruction and Problem Solving to 1.50 Comprehension Strategies Math Interventions to 1.10 Writing Interventions to .85 Reschly RTI

15 Behavior Interventions Effect Sizes
Treatment Effect Size Applied Behavior Analysis Beh. Assessment+Graphing+Formative Evaluation + reinforcement Reinforcement to 1.50 DRO Group Contingencies Reinforcement + Response Cost Reschly RTI

16 Prevention-Early Intervention: Legal Requirements
LEA can use 15% of federal IDEA funds to support prevention and early identification-treatment Purpose: minimize over-identification and unnecessary sp ed referrals Provide academic and behavioral supports; and professional development re: early literacy and behavior MUST use the 15% if LEA has “significant disproportionality Reschly RTI

17 Enter a School-Wide Systems for Student Success
Multiple Tiers Implemented Through Progress Monitoring and Formative Evaluation (Sugai, Horner, & Gresham, 2002) Enter a School-Wide Systems for Student Success Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual and Small Groups Intense, Prolonged Intervention Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual and Small Groups Intense, Prolonged Interventions 5-10% 5-10% 10-15% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) Standard protocol reading interventions 10-15% Targeted Small Group or Individual Interventions Some students (at-risk) Targeted Individual Behavior 80-85% Universal Interventions Effective Academic In- struction School-wide positive Behavior Effective classroom and Behavior management Reschly RTI

18 Key Mechanism: Formative Evaluation
Multi-Tiered Academic Interventions of Increasing Intensity and Measurement Precision Tier I: General Education: All students; Effective instruction, 80-85% at benchmarks Tier II: Standard Protocol and Problem Solving: (about 10 to 20 weeks) Small group and individualized interventions Decision Making: Continue Program, Modifications, Comprehensive Evaluation?? Tier III: More Intensive, Sustained Instruction in General and/or Special education Key Mechanism: Formative Evaluation Reschly RTI

19 Key Mechanism: Formative Evaluation
Multi-Tiered Behavior Interventions of Increasing Intensity and Measurement Precision Level I: General Education : School wide positive discipline and effective classroom organization and management Level II: Individualized Problem Solving re: Behavior: Targeted individual interventions in general education Decision Making? Continue Program, Modifications, Comprehensive Evaluation Level III: More Intensive, Sustained Instruction in General or Special education Key Mechanism: Formative Evaluation Reschly RTI

20 Formative Evaluation Frequent assessment of progress
Referenced to goals based on benchmarks toward passing state tests Decision rules regarding modification of goals or instructional programs All decisions about student needs and instructional intensity are based on child RTI Reschly RTI

21 Characteristics of Effective Formative Evaluation Measures
Direct measures of skills Natural settings Efficient re: costs and time required Sensitive to small increments of growth in relevant skills Results can be graphed in relation to goals Reliable in terms of stability Valid re: relationship to broad indicators of competence Example: Behavior Assessment and CBM oral reading fluency and reading comprehension Reschly RTI

22 Chapter 1 Conclusions Strong support for RTI-note key components
Policy and legal requirements support RTI in academics and behavior Prevention, early identification-early treatment emphasis Ensure special education is last rather than first resort Progress monitoring and formative evaluation principles: Change it if not working Reschly RTI

23 Tier I: General Education, Universal Stage, Primary Prevention
Academics and Behavior Scientifically-based Explicit instruction in academics and behavior Systematic intervention Inter-related, reciprocal relationships, mutually supported Discuss separately here, but acknowledge the essential inter-relationship of academics and behavior Reschly RTI

24 Tier I: General Education
Universal screening of all students in early grades Positive Behavior Supports Effective classroom organization and behavior management Teacher support teams Reschly RTI

25 Teacher Preparation in Classroom Behavior Management
Interview faculty: “Yes, we cover it!” Interview new teachers: “No, I was not prepared.” Current study of IHEs preparation in classroom behavioral management Most do not prepare teachers in the area Preparation is not thorough or at the right time Mentoring, assistance in classroom management is effective Reschly RTI

26 Behavioral Assessment and CBM Measures
Focused on determination of change Formative evaluation critical Tied to effective practices and better outcomes Applications in general, remedial, and special education Identification of disabilities-integrates identification with treatment Reschly RTI

27 Why Behavior Assessment (including CBM)
Determine current levels in academics and behavior; degree of need Monitor progress, assess change Foundation for formative evaluation-improving interventions Determine success of interventions Decisions based in child response to interventions Reschly RTI

28 Tier I: Screening for Behavior Problems
Early indications of later serious behavior problems appear by age 3-5 Early identification-treatment more effective than later interventions, especially with aggression Behavior referrals often occur too late for maximum effect of interventions Identification as ED and Sp Ed placement most often occur at age 10, 11, or older when interventions are less effective and more resistant Reschly RTI

29 Tier I Assessment of Behavior
Focus on classroom and individuals Screen all children for behavior Aggressive behaviors-identify and treat at young ages Treat through age 8; Manage after age 8 Early intervention much more effective than later Social isolation Bullying Classroom related social skills (or academic enablers Reschly RTI

30 Multiple Gating Procedures (Walker & Severson, 1995) Sopris West
Teacher Ranking of Children ( 3 highest ranked) on Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors Teacher Rating (Exceeds Norms) Direct Observations and Parental Questionnaire Focused Interventions Reschly RTI

31 Behavioral Earthquakes
Critical Behavioral Events High impact-great intensity-low frequency behaviors: Behavioral Earthquakes Fire setting, cruelty, extreme aggressiveness, suicide threats/attempts, physical confrontation, use of weapons, etc. Should provoke immediate referral School Archival Records Search (SARS)-Sopris Reschly RTI

32 Tier I Prevention School-wide Positive Behavior Supports
National Technical Assistance Center at PBS is a broad range of systemic & individualized strategies for achieving important social & learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior with all students. Reschly RTI

33 Continuum of behavioral support
PBS Strategies Continuum of behavioral support Prevention through common set of behavioral expectations, taught to all students in system, reinforced by all adults and students Applied through multiple tiers Focus on problematic areas, hallways, cafeteria, assemblies, etc. Must include individual and group interventions as well Reschly RTI

34 PBIS Messages Successful Individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or schools that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable (Zins & Ponti, 1990) Learning & teaching environments must be redesigned to increase the likelihood of behavior intervention plan success Reschly RTI

35 School-wide Support procedures and processes intended for all students, staff, and settings must have a building-wide team that oversees all development, implementation, modification, and evaluation activities Looking to create a predictable and consistent environment for both students and staff. Reschly RTI

36 Characteristics of Support
1. Common purpose & approach to discipline 2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors 3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior 4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation SAY: Although most schools have a written conduct of conduct or discipline policy which is important, it tends to focus on procedures for processing rule violations (5.). Effective school-wide discipline systems have a matching and strong proactive component that teaches and encourages prosocial behavior, and provides an on-going progress monitoring system. The remaining five items are important but difficult to sustain without clear school-wide investments and structures in place. Reschly RTI

37 Tier I: Classroom Organization and Behavior Management
Classrooms vary significantly in organization and management Influences engaged time and academic productivity Influences incidence of behavior problems Discipline issues: major cause for teacher attrition Most new teachers to not believe they are adequately prepared, especially for classrooms with culturally diverse, economically disadvantaged students Teacher preparation vs teacher needs Reschly RTI

38 Principles of Strong Classroom Organization and Management: Engaging Instruction
First and most important principle Use a variety of instructional methods Direct instruction, teacher led, frequent responding, frequent feedback Program high rate of success Teaching at child’s/student’s instructional level Reschly RTI

39 Principles of Strong Classroom Organization and Management: Structuring the Environment
Clearly communicating expectations for each activity (red, yellow, green sign procedure) Manage instructional time (large group, small group, individual assistance) efficiently Transitioning from activity to activity (major issue), particularly for boys and distractible kids Communicate expectations at beginning of class Reschly RTI

40 Principles cont.: Monitoring Behavior and Academic Engagement
Scanning and moving around the room in unpredictable patterns Close proximity to students off task, nonverbal Praise and reprimands: Quiet, specific, directed to person ≥ 80% should be actively engaged React quickly to off task behavior Active engagement incompatible with disruptive behavior (DRI) High rates of response Praise/encouragement of appropriate behavior Reschly RTI

41 Principles cont: Classroom Rules and Behavioral Routines
Establish and teach behavioral rules and routines Teach in first two weeks of school State in terms of positive behavior Link to school wide expectations (e.g., same language) Teach explicitly, Provide examples and non-examples, reinforce compliance “Be respectful” (raise hand, listen to others, kind to others, wait turn, how to seek help, etc.) Routines (bathroom, transitions between activities, turning in homework, large group, small group, free time) Reschly RTI

42 Principles cont.: Encourage and Reinforce Appropriate Behavior
Focus on maintaining and increasing appropriate behaviors, academic and social Identify what children are supposed to do, what they can do, not just what they cannot do Ratio of positive to negative comments Misbehavior is a behavioral error, re-teach and reinforce appropriate behavior Reschly RTI

43 Principles cont.: Behavior Reduction Strategies
Responding to misbehavior Continuum of consequences established Consider misbehavior as a behavioral error: Treat like an academic skills error Re-teach appropriate behavior Respond consistently and efficiently Observe the effects of behavior reduction strategy Punishment??? Behavior increases?? Respond early: avoid escalation, prolonged existence Reschly RTI

44 Behavior Reduction Strategies, cont.
Stimulus control (cues, directions) Differential reinforcement (DRI or DRO) Response cost Group contingencies (e.g., Good Behavior Game) Self-monitoring, self management Extinction (ignore behavior, reinforce incompatible behavior, prepare for response burst) Punishment Reschly RTI

45 Effects of Temper Tantrums: Negative Reinforcement Trap
Teacher presents task Student refuses, teacher persists, student has temper tantrum, teacher gives in Function of temper tantrum? Escape task demands Teacher giving in removes negative stimulus and thereby reinforces escape behavior Soooo, some brilliant psychologists says, “Ignore the behavior.” Will that work? Eventually, yes, but slow and problematic Reschly RTI

46 Temper Tantrums per Day
Initiate Extinction Procedure Number Days Reschly RTI

47 Initiate Extinction Procedure DRO Added
Reschly RTI

48 Effects of Extinction (Ignoring Previously Reinforced Behavior)
Some behaviors cannot and should not be ignored Initial effect may be a response burst (higher and more intense expressions of behavior) Combine extinction with other strategies such as DRO and DRI Extinction alone often works slowly Avoid intermittent reinforcement with extinction Add response cost and reinforcement for appropriate behavior Reschly RTI

49 Tier I: Importance of Classroom Organization and Behavior Management
Kellam, Baltimore Schools Students randomly assigned to 1st grade teachers, then classroom was the unit of analysis Classrooms observed during first 9 wks., high rates of disruptive behavior and aggression, large differences across classrooms Classrooms randomly assigned to, Experimental condition: Good Behavior Game (Barrish, et al, 1969; Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991) vs. Control condition of in-service on general curriculum issues Reschly RTI

50 Kellam Research: Classroom Organization and Management
Good Behavior Game (Barrish, et al., 1969) Group contingency Two groups formed into teams Define rules and positive behaviors Teams compete for positive consequences Team with highest rate of appropriate behaviors earn “rewards” Lining up first, Help teacher pick-up classroom, free time, etc. Reschly RTI

51 Kellam Research: Effects of Good Behavior Game Were Statistically Significant
Aggression and disruptive behavior continued in control classrooms Marked reduction in experimental condition Experimental classrooms had higher academic productivity and achievement Aggressive students in both conditions followed through 6th grade and first grade classroom effects persisted First grade experience sets academic and behavioral trajectory Reschly RTI

52 Good Behavior Game Baseline Reschly RTI

53 Tier I: Implications of Behavior
Classroom organization and behavior management are crucial to student success “Teacher’s skills at classroom management were then critical to children’s socialization, particularly in the face of family poverty.” (Kellam, et al., 1998a, p. 182) “Teacher training typically does not provide effective methods and experience in classroom behavior management.” (Kellam, et al., 1998, p. 182). Relatively simple, cost effective interventions can produce large and persistent effects Reschly RTI

54 Principles: Secondary Level (Sprick, R. S. (2006)
Principles: Secondary Level (Sprick, R.S. (2006). Discipline in the secondary classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.) ( ) Selected chapter titles Basic behavioral strategies, Key concepts Instructional design and evaluation systems Prepare for routines and procedures Expectations: Teach students to be successful Rules and consequences, responding to misbehavior Motivation: Enhancing desire to succeed Proactive planning for misbehavior Reschly RTI

55 Teacher Support Teams For students who need additional support and intervention (1% to 5% of students) Classroom based, teacher and/or team develops One or two session problem solving Minimal data requirements Attempts over 3-4 weeks Produce changes, then must sustain Apply basic problem solving procedures Reschly RTI

56 Basic Problem Solving (Teachers and School Teams) (Heartland Area Education Agency, Johnston, IA)
• Define the Problem (Screening and Diagnostic Assessments) What is the problem and why is it happening? • Develop a Plan (Goal Setting and Planning) • Evaluate (Progress Monitoring Assessment) What are we going to do? Did our plan work? • Implement Plan (Treatment Integrity) Reschly RTI Carry out the intervention

57 Tier I: Teacher Support Team Analysis
What is student doing and why is it a problem When is student successful and less likely to misbehave? When is student less successful and more likely to misbehave Why does behavior occur, what is student getting from the behavior What other factors contribute to the behavior Consider attention, escape, etc. Reschly RTI

58 Resources for Tier I Behavior strategies:
Positive Behavior Supports Challenging behavior with young children K-6 prevention curriculum re aggression, acting out Classroom management Reschly RTI

59 Resources for Tier I, continued
Classroom Structure See Paine, S.C., Radicci, J., Rosellini, L.C., Deutchman, L. & Darch, C.B. (1983). Structuring your classroom for academic success. Champaign, IL: Research Press. (for beginning tchrs) Monitoring student behavior Student engagement and motivation Reschly RTI

60 Resources cont.
Classroom rules and routines Positive reinforcement Reschly RTI

61 Resources cont. Defining consequences Time out (extinction) Good Behavior Game Reschly RTI

62 Summary of Tier I Universal level, all students
Program for highly effective academics AND behavior Greater intensity and increased measurement precision for students below benchmark trajectories and expectations in behavior and academics Behavior in classrooms can markedly affect academic outcomes and vice versa Reschly RTI

63 Moving from Tier I to Tier II in Behavior
Good behavior management Observation confirms critical elements in place 80+% are on task in structured situations Clear differences between target child and other students confirmed by observations Teacher has used appropriate individually focused interventions Progress and level of behavior are not sufficient Reschly RTI

64 Tier II Behavior: Targeted Individual Behavior Interventions in General Education
Targeted individual interventions in classrooms and in standard protocol academic settings Application of problem solving steps and criteria Behavior problem solving High success rates if implemented Improved behavior often is crucial to persistence of academic interventions effects over time and generalization to classroom settings Reschly RTI

65 Tier II Behavior Problem Solving
Multi-stage process, with decisions driven by data. Interview outlines markedly assist in this process Prompts for covering essential information “Natural” conversational methods to define problems, gather a record, design interventions, implement interventions, and evaluate outcomes Establishes basis for more intense interventions if needed Source: Bergan, J. R., (1977). Behavior consultation. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill. Reschly RTI

66 4 Stages with multiple goals in each
Tier II Behavior Stages of Problem Solving (Targeted Individual Behavioral Interventions) 4 Stages with multiple goals in each Accomplish goals in the 4 stages produces .80 probability of success Continuing education and interview protocols are sufficient plus Knowledge of behavior change principles and powerful instructional interventions Reschly RTI

67 Problem Analysis Evaluation Problem Identification
Define Target Data Collection Tentative Goal Behavior Problem Analysis Data Goals Evidence-Based Intervention Intervention Plan Intervention Implementation Graph/ Fidelity Progress Decision Goals Checks Monitoring Rules Evaluation Data Goal Decisions Attainment Reschly RTI

68 Tier II Behavior Overview of Problem Solving
Self-correcting methodology Varies in intensity Fundamental steps of define, measure, intervene, and evaluate Applicable to general education interventions and to special education programs Note overlap with positive behavior supports Reschly RTI

69 Tier II Behavior: Stage I: Problem Definition and Measurement-Goals
Identify problem in observable, behavioral terms Identify the setting, expectations, and estimate the frequency of the behavior, Develop a realistic, applicable measure of the behavior that can be applied in the classroom/school Reschly RTI

70 Tier II Behavior Problem Problem Definition and Measurement-Goals continued
Determine tentative goal for change Collect data Establish timeline for interventions, progress monitoring checks, consideration of intervention changes, etc Detect irrational ideas (rare occurrence) Reschly RTI

71 Tier II Behavior Problem Identification Interview Outline
Behavior (see interview protocol) Questions: Describe behavior Questions: Ask for examples Questions: Where, When, What doing, Expectations Summarize, confirm or revise Reschly RTI

72 Problem Identification Interview Outline cont.
Conditions around behavior Questions: Prior learning and setting events Questions: Setting conditions Questions: Consequences/effects of behavior Summarize conditions around the behavior Reschly RTI

73 Problem Identification Interview cont.
Tentative Goals and Assets Questions: Estimate current status Questions: Estimate goal Questions: Assets question Questions: Current approaches to teaching or behavior management Summarize and confirm Reschly RTI

74 Problem Identification Interview cont.
Assessment Questions about record of behavior Questions: Kind of measure consideration (see later) Summarize and confirm Wrap Up: Written summary Behavior Assessment procedures Assessment materials, requirements Time/Date for next appointment Reschly RTI

75 Selection and Definition of Problem Behaviors
Significant influence on data collection Considerations Physical danger to student and others Importance to development and later opportunities Relationship to other behaviors Social validation-importance Negative consequences of existing behavior Reschly RTI

76 Collateral Effects Change behaviors that likely have positive effects on other behaviors Academic productivity on disruptive behavior On-task behavior on disruptive behavior and academic success Reschly RTI

77 Positive vs Negative Target Behaviors
Acceleration vs deceleration targets Stopping, discontinuing behavior does not teach or improve skills Acceleration targets—skill building More interventions for increasing than decreasing behaviors Nature of interventions to decrease behaviors Accelerate, if possible, positive incompatible behaviors Reschly RTI

78 Nature of the Problem Definition
Dn must be objective meaning that it is observable, Define behaviors for unobservable targets such as self-concept Must be identified by tangible characteristics Dn must be clear so that other persons can apply it and accurately report it, that is inter-judge agreement Complete so that occurrence and non-occurrence are readily apparent Reschly RTI

79 Operational Definitions Exercise 1
Develop a specific, behavioral DN of the following: “Jeff is always messing around in study hall. He never works like he is supposed to” Operational DN Reschly RTI

80 Operational Definitions Exercise 2
Develop a specific, behavioral DN of the following: “Danny misses many classes, is often tardy, does not complete work, and is failing tests.” Operational DN Reschly RTI

81 Problem Solving Practice
Group activity: Implement a problem solving protocol to accomplish the goals regarding one of the problems in the prior slides Reschly RTI

82 What to do with Egbert? Parent Involvement Inform
Describe subsequent steps and procedures Invite participation Involve parent, at their discretion, in problem solving Schedule meeting Reschly RTI

83 Egbert: Problem Solving: Problem Statement in Behavior
Egbert is off task (how much?) Egbert initiates disruptive behavior that violates classroom rules (how often compared to peers?) Egbert does not complete classroom work Poor reading skills compared to peers and benchmarks (academics and behavior) Non-compliant behavior—does not follow directions and direct requests, i.e., when asked, Egbert ignores requests Reschly RTI

84 Definition and Measurement: Kinds of Measures
Accurate quantification of difference between current and desired levels, Direct, Match setting and domain, Frequent and repeated measurement Efficient Sensitive to growth in academic and/or behavioral skills Related to important general outcomes Results can be graphed Reschly RTI

85 Why Data Collection?? Validate the existence of the problem
Nature Severity Develop a realistic perspective (move away from always or never) Determine degree of difference with expectations Assess progress and apply changes during the intervention Assess effectiveness of the intervention Prompt focus on ABCs of behavior Reschly RTI

86 Data Collection Principles
Maximize simplicity and minimize intrusiveness Match to frequency and severity of the problem Increase complexity as needed Severity of the problem Degree of student limitations Available resources Sufficient data to estimate strength and evaluate success Teacher or parent involvement with design Provision of materials, prompts, props Reschly RTI

87 Data Collection: Permanent Product
Naturally occurring permanent products Attendance, work completion, percent correct, grades, Usually most convenient and least intrusive Fosters maintenance and generalization Most acceptable to teachers, parents, and others Often can use a permanent product along with other measures of the behavior Most positive changes will also have a collateral effect on one or more permanent products Examples of permanent products??? Reschly RTI

88 Data Collection: Event Recording
Events: ideal for high impact, low frequency events. Examples: Encopresis, swearing, temper tantrums, non-compliance Simple recording on counter, 3x5 card Cannot use if frequency is high, too much recording and too little teaching Reschly RTI

89 Time period specified (10 seconds, 30 minutes)
Interval Recording Time period specified (10 seconds, 30 minutes) Record behavior if it occurs at any time during the interval Requires timing device and observer Intrusive for teachers, especially if intervals are short and/or the behavior occurs frequently Normative comparisons Reschly RTI

90 Time Sampling Record behavior only if it occurs at the end of the interval Example, 10 seconds, 2 minutes, 5 minutes, observe at end of interval, behavior recorded if it is occurring at the end of the interval Also intrusive on teacher time, especially if intervals are short Requires timing device and observer Normative comparisons Reschly RTI

91 “Get ready!” Response “I am” BUT NO MOVEMENT
Latency Time elapsed between request or other cue/prompt and the initiation or onset of the behavior. “Get ready!” Response “I am” BUT NO MOVEMENT Time required for child to comply to teacher or child response Intrusive, requires timing device Not applicable to many problems Reschly RTI

92 Duration Time associated with a behavior or event----length of the behavior Appropriate for some behaviors such as length of temper tantrums, teen-ager whining, length of phone calls Requires timing and vigilance regarding beginning and end Reschly RTI

93 Data Collection Decisions
A 4th grade teacher asks you to observe in a classroom. The teachers describes a girl, Nancy, as wandering around the room, asking the teacher for an excessive amount of help, and as completing few seatwork assignments What 2 behaviors would you record and why? Reschly RTI

94 Data Collection Decisions
A 10th grade teacher complains, “Danny misses many classes, is often tardy, does not complete work, and is failing tests.” What 2 behaviors and why? Reschly RTI

95 Methods to Collect Information
R Review records I Interview significant others O Observe in relevant situations T Test, Structured rating scales See application later Reschly RTI

96 Behavior and Academic Skills Measures
Kind of measure continued Reliable Results can be graphed Sensitive to changes in skills Feasible for use by teachers or paraprofessionals Reschly RTI

97 Behavior and Academic Skills Measures
Why are standardized achievement tests inappropriate for progress monitoring Weak sensitivity to gains in skills Do not cover important areas of educational performance Cannot be repeated frequently, administered frequently Cannot be graphed to evaluate an intervention that is a few weeks or a couple of months in duration Reschly RTI

98 Behavior and Academic Skills Measures
Why is graphing important? Ensures that data will be considered Often easily to interpret Tangible reflection of program effects Provides the basis for changing programs if results miss goals Graphing + program changes produces best effects; + reinforcement=1.0 SD effect size Reschly RTI

99 Behavior Observation Scheme
Review PABIS Protocol Momentary Time Sampling (15 sec intervals) Record behaviors Attending Inappropriate location Noisy Physically negative ?? Additional behaviors as defined with teacher Reschly RTI

100 PABIS Observation Schedule
Peer Referenced Behavior Observation Target peer, every other interval Same sex peers, every other interval Observe multiple peers Compare target to peers Overall class scores low on attending and high on behaviors: implications Is Target significantly different from peers Reschly RTI

101 Peer Referenced Behavior Observation:
Momentary Time Sampling 15 second intervals: Egbert vs Peers Setting/ Behavior Attending Noisy Physically Negative Inappro Locale Gen Ed Classroom P=82% Eg=35% P=5% Eg=10% Eg=25% P=10% Tutoring P=91% Eg=60% Eg=20% P=0% Eg=5% Reschly RTI

102 Systematic Data Collection Results
Work completion-Gen Ed Classroom Egbert=40%; Peers=90% Work completion-Tutoring Egbert=60%; Peers=95% Non-Compliance (event recording) General classroom=5 per day Tutoring=2 per day Parents=5 per day Reschly RTI

103 Egbert: PS Discrepancies and Goals
Educationally Relevant Discrepancies? Reading-ORF and Decoding Classroom and Tutoring, interfering behaviors Non-compliance-observed in general classroom, tutoring, and home Is There Justification for Intense Interventions? Reschly RTI

104 Stage II Analysis of Problem and Intervention Development
Goals Determine goal for change in educational performance, including academic skills or behavior Analyze the conditions related to the behavior Skills vs. Performance Problem, or both Develop an instructional or behavioral intervention to address the behavior Determine the requirements for the intervention Reschly RTI

105 Nature of Problem: Skills, Performance or Both?
Skills problems, cannot do Never observed to do the behavior Lacks prerequisite skills Motivation seems strong, is trying Must teach behaviors Modeling Teacher and student(s) perform behavior Student performs with feedback Student prompted and reinforced in natural environment Reschly RTI

106 Nature of Problem: Skills, Performance or Both?
Performance problems can do but won’t or does not Variable performance levels, does sometimes Clearly knows the behavior Motivation seems low Consequences (reinforcement, response cost) Enhance reinforcement for appropriate beh Eliminate reinforcement for non-compliance Ehance cues that prompt appropriate behavior Reschly RTI

107 Nature of Problem: Skills, Performance or Both?
Emotional Regulation Problems Often accompanied by strong emotions Triggers Full behavioral sequence occurs once triggered Instruction and Performance Awareness of triggers Skill alternatives, alternative methods to cope Modeling, self-modeling, practice alternatives Cognitive behavioral counseling Reschly RTI

108 Problem Analysis Interview and Goals
Confirm problem and set goal(s) Questions: Analyze data with a graph or table Questions: Goals for change based on peer, developmental norms, setting requirements Questions: Realistic but challenging goals Effects of ambitious goals Summary statement and confirmation Reschly RTI

109 Problem Analysis Interview and Goals
Analysis of Conditions Questions: Setting, notice anything? Questions: Setting, what is being done? Teaching? Questions: Consequences, what happened? Questions: Skills vs Performance Problems Can do but won’t do Cannot do Summary and confirmation Reschly RTI

110 Problem Analysis Interview and Goals
Intervention development Questions: Intervention strategy (principle on which intervention is developed) Questions: Intervention tactics (how intervention is implemented in a real setting Questions: Practical matters about the intervention Summarize and confirm Reschly RTI

111 Problem Analysis Interview and Goals
Plan implementation and support Questions: Practical requirements Questions: Procedural matters Questions: Continued data collection (graph, support) Questions: Fidelity of intervention implementation Follow-up arrangements and trouble shooting (phone, ) Reschly RTI

112 Problem Analysis Interview and Goals
Group activity: Implement a problem solving protocol to accomplish the goals regarding problem analysis and intervention. (see interview schedule) Reschly RTI

113 Problem Analysis Interview and Goals
Activity: Three per group Initial concerns “Danny misses many classes, is often tardy, does not complete work, and is failing tests.” Reschly RTI

114 Problem Analysis Interview and Goals
Activity: Three per group Change Roles One asks questions and summarizes information One responds One observes, records accomplishment of goals Reschly RTI

115 Interviewing significant participants
Functional Analysis of Behaviors Strategies (DuPaul, G. J., et al. (1997) Interventions for students with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: One size does not fit all. School Psychology Review, 26, ) Interviewing significant participants Descriptive information, define behaviors, tentative goals Use parents or teacher’s problem descriptions Behavioral consultation interview protocols Generally effective with most classroom-based disruptive behaviors Less effective with high impact-low intensive behaviors Less effective with severe behavior problems, e.g., self-injurious behaviors Reschly RTI

116 Functional Analysis of Behaviors (DuPaul et al.
Descriptive Analysis Systematic classroom observation (or other situation) Develop hypotheses about function of behavior Identify variables that seem to occasion and maintain behaviors: Identify antecedent, situational, and consequences of behavior Hypothesis: Student appears to be off task when task demands are more challenging Reschly RTI

117 Functional Analysis of Behaviors (DuPaul et al.
Experimental Analysis of Behavior Validate hypotheses Systematically change environment and observe effects Common functions of behaviors: Avoid, Escape, Reschly RTI

118 Egbert Problem Analysis
IF-THEN Statements If this is done, then Egbert will ______. If these conditions are established, then Egbert will ________________. Intervene with each educationally significant discrepancy Implement powerful intervention principles from the instructional design and behavior change literatures Reschly RTI

119 Egbert: Problem Solving Problem Analysis
Interpretation: Egbert exhibits Skills deficits (poor reading fluency, poor decoding) and Performance problems (inattentive, disruptive classroom behavior, non-compliance at school and home). Emotional regulation is adequate Reschly RTI

120 Egbert: Problem Solving Intervention Goals
Inattentiveness, physically negative, inappropriate locale, and noisy will improve by 5% per week until peer averages are attained. Non-compliance at school and home will be reduced to no more than 1 per day Reschly RTI

121 Egbert Problem Solving: Intervention Plan Development in Classroom
Explicit expectations for behavior Sign system designed by psychologist and teacher. 3x5 card at desk with symbols for classroom rules Teacher monitoring with non-verbal cues and appropriately delivered praise and encouragement Teacher awarded points for on task behavior using tick marks on a 3x5 card Activity reinforcers in school and home used to consequate improved behavior Premack Principle Applies to all of us Naturally occurring events that we choose versus those which we avoid or put off Reschly RTI

122 Egbert Problem Solving: Intervention Plan Development: Non Compliance
Non-compliance defined in school and home Instruction given in appropriate ways to make requests Specific behavior, not several behaviors Clear message Defined wait time School-Home Note, daily exchange, Level of compliance defined Consequences at school and home for compliance Choices regarding consequences Reschly RTI

123 Reschly’s Favorite Principles #1
Positive reinforcement Defined by its effect on behavior Behavior increases? The event following the behavior is a positive reinforcer Not defined by how it looks or how we judge the consequence Reinforcers differ by individuals, unpredictable Good guesses, but have to check effects Reschly RTI

124 Incentives for College Professors’ Grant Writing
Baseline $1000. Incentive Reschly RTI

125 Reschly’s Favorites Key Principle #2
Contingent Attention, Encouragement, Praise Specific, name behavior (vs. unconditional general comments), focus on behaviors to be maintained or increased Positive body language and non-verbals Ratio in classrooms of 4:1 (elsewhere?) Given individually Given to groups Catch students being “good” Reschly RTI

126 Reschly’s Favorites: Principle #3: Procedures for Corrective Feedback
Effects of loud and soft reprimands in classroom Delivering reprimands Close proximity Soft voice, devoid of emotion, whisper if possible Name specific behavior to be decreased in matter of fact tone Name specific appropriate behavior to replace inappropriate behavior Encourage change of behavior Reinforce behavior change Reschly RTI

127 Reschly’s Favorites: Principle #4
Premack Principle (Activity Reinforcers) High probability behaviors serve as reinforcers for low probability behaviors Doing what you need to do can be reinforced by doing what you like to do Finish work Then Socialize Balance checkbook/pay bills Then TV Complete graph Then surf web Reschly RTI

128 Reschly’s Favorites: Principle #5
Response Cost (requires reinforcers) Withdrawing or removing reinforcers contingent on inappropriate behavior Teen-agers Refuse homework Loss of privileges Break curfew Grounded Fail classes Loss of automobile Younger Children Access to TV, Bedtime, etc. Reschly RTI

129 Baseline Response Cost RC RC Reschly RTI

130 Reschly’s Favorite Principles #6
Modeling Observational learning, vicarious consequences Punishment story Adult models (teacher model appropriate behaviors) Effects of models Peer models Self-modeling via videotape Reschly RTI

131 Reschly’s Favorite Principles # 7
Progress monitoring with formative evaluation Large effect size Graphs, time series analysis, decisions rules Implement intervention, change it Applicable to individuals, small groups, classrooms, schools, school districts, states, ? Nation ? Reschly RTI

132 Reschly’s Favorite Principles #8
Behavior Contracts, e.g., Home-School Notes Negotiated among all parties Written If-then statements Focus on increasing positive behaviors Consequences at school and home Most positive reinforcers for middle and high school students are outside of school Depends of competent parents Reschly RTI

133 Reschly’s Favorite Principles #9
Self-monitoring, self-regulation Define behaviors Method of recording Consequences related to meeting goals Teaches responsibility Many applications (on task, studying, weight control) Depends on effective consequences Self-reinforcement Reschly RTI

134 Reschly’s Favorite Principles #10
Differential reinforcement of OTHER or INCOMPATIBLE Behaviors Reinforce appropriate replacement behaviors Strengthens behavior as well as weakens inappropriate behavior Teaches appropriate behavior related to developmental tasks Avoids negative consequences Reschly RTI

135 Problem Solving Stage III: Intervention Implementation
Assist with intervention Prompts and props-what’s needed Fidelity checks at least weekly Revisions due to practical exigencies Monitor progress frequently (consider the measure, etc. and graph results) Design and implement changes in the intervention when goals are not met Provide feedback to teacher or parent Reschly RTI

136 Why is graphing important?
Ensures that data will be considered Often easily to interpret Tangible reflection of program effects Provides the basis for changing programs if results miss goals Graphing + program changes produces best effects; + reinforcement=1.0 SD effect size Reschly RTI

137 What is Fidelity (Treatment Integrity)
Degree to which something is implemented as designed, intended, planned: Examples, SLD classification criteria, note options Screening three times per year Delivery of more intense instruction for students not on course to reach benchmarks Progress monitoring with formative evaluation All involve multiple components Can they be implemented with good fidelity, and How Reschly RTI

138 Factors Related to Integrity
Complexity of treatments Time required to implement treatment Materials and resources required for the treatment Perceived and actual effectiveness of treatment: Credibility Number of treatment agents Expertise of treatment agents Motivation of treatment agents Reschly RTI

139 Producing Greater Fidelity
Manualized treatments, e.g., Problem solving protocols or 3-Tier Reading Sp Ed is form-driven: Use to improve fidelity Components specified, Operations defined Permanent products generated Comparisons of products to components and operations Formative evaluation procedures implemented with subsequent components, operations, and permanent products specified Reschly RTI

140 Determining Fidelity Direct assessment, observation with feedback
Noell and Witt data, acceptable to teachers Indirect assessment, permanent products Work completed, work accuracy Accomplishment of goals, progress Progress monitoring indicates success Self-report with a checklist of components Reschly RTI

141 Stage IV: Evaluation and Decision Making: Goals
Determine success of intervention Analyze trend in results Analyze change from initial levels Analyze changes as a result of changes in the intervention Determine sustainability of change Determine need to address other problems Determine need for further problem solving Consider special education eligibility and need as appropriate Reschly RTI

142 Problem Evaluation Interview
Determine success Questions: attaining goals (view graph) Questions: trends Questions: what is needed to produce success for this student? Reschly RTI

143 Plan continuation/modification
Problem Evaluation Plan continuation/modification Questions: intervention continuation Questions: data collection/monitoring Questions: Maintenance and generalization Inquire about other problems Reschly RTI

144 Availability of General Education Interventions Prior to Referral
Pre Post 1. Intervention prior to % 98% eligibility determination 2. Behavioral definition % 75% 3. Direct measure-baseline % 75% 4. Systematic intervention plan % 86% 5. Results compared to Baseline % 68% Self-report Data Reschly RTI

145 Table 3: Comparisons of Pre and Post Problem Solving Initial Interviews
Met/Partially Met Not Met Chi-Square/p Pre Post Pre Post Behavior Definition % 75% % 25% ** Tentative Strength % 89% % 11% ** Antecedent Conditions 57% 83% % 17% * Consequent Conditions 60% 89% % 11% ** Situational Conditions % 92% % % ** Summary Statements % 75% % 26% Tentative Goal % 70% % % ** Data Collection % 86% % % ** Note: *=p<.05; **=p<.01

146 Table 4: Goal Attainment and Quality Indices During the Plan Development
Yes No Examine Baseline Data 75% % Strength of Behavior and Goal Identified 100% 0% Antecedent Conditions Analyzed 50% % Situational Conditions Analyzed 59% % Consequent Conditions Analyzed 59% % Plan Strategy Identified % % Type of Problem: Skills Only % Performance Only 71% Both %

147 Table 5: Goal Attainment During the Plan Implementation Stage
Yes No 1. Training Provided to the Consultee % 59% 2. Contacts with Consultee During Plan Implementation % 32% 3. Plan Revisions Made % 72%

148 Table 6: Goal Attainment and Quality Indices During the Plan Evaluation Stage
Yes No Results Compared to Baseline % % Elements of Plan Continued % % Consultee Indicated Plan Could be Used with Others % % Maintenance/Generalization Planning 46% %

149 Table 7: Outcomes of Problem Solving Interventions
Consultee Judgment Consultee Judgmenta Confirmed by Records and Graphsb Goal Status N % N % Goals Met % % Largely Met % % Partially Met % % Not Metc % % aConsultee judgment results were based on consultee’s conclusions regarding goal attainment. bJudgment and data results were based on consultee’s conclusions and the submission of graphs or other records confirming goal attainment status. cForty cases were re-coded as “goals not met” because tangible evidence confirming consultee judgment was not submitted with the case records.

150 Table 12: Correlations of Composite Variables and Short-Term Case Outcomes
Problem Plan Outcome: Consultee Analysis Implementation Judgment Confirmed Composite Composite by Data Prob Ident. Composite Prob. Anal Composite Plan Implem. Composite Multiple R=.58

151 Table 13: Summary of Long-Term Target Behavior Outcomes
Number and Percent Outcome Of Cases Target Behavior No Longer a Problem 10 (12%) Target Behavior Much Improved 28 (35%) Target Behavior Somewhat Improved 28 (35%) Target Behavior Same as Baseline 11 (14%) Target Behavior Somewhat Worse Than Baseline (2%) Target Behavior Much Worse

152 Table 14: Correlations Among Plan Evaluation, Follow-Up, and Long-Term Outcomes
Maintenance/ Follow-up Long-Term Generalization Consultation Outcome 1. Good Data * *** 2. Maintenance/ Generalization .51*** *** 3. Follow-up Consultation * Multiple R= .52

153 Summary and Implications
Continuing education in problem solving consultation is needed and should include (a) opportunities to observe skills, (b) procedures to accomplish critical goals of each stage of problem solving, and (c) role playing with feedback Continuing education must have follow-up opportunities to implement problem solving skills, with support and feedback System support, expectations, and demands must be established to ensure the implementation of new skills.

154 Summary and Conclusions, cont.
All problem solving stages are important to successful outcomes. Problem identification alone is not sufficient. The variables that are most important to initial case outcome are not significantly related to long-term outcomes. Systematic programming for maintenance and generalization of behavioral change and continuing contracts between the consultant and consultee are predictive of positive long-term outcomes. Reschly RTI

155 Intervention Strategies: Key
Know Well and Have Used 1. Contingency Contracting 61% 2. Positive Reinforcement 92% 3. Negative Reinforcement 47% 4. DRL % 5. DRO 12% 6. Extinction 36% 7. IRL % (Lie item) 8. Fading 31%

156 Intervention Strategies: Key
Know Well and Have Used 9. Time Out 74% 10. Premack Principle 32% 11. Modeling 67% 12. Cognitive Behavior 33% 13. Lorenz Effect 0% (lie item) 14. Negative Practice 6% 15. Overcorrection 18% 16. Good Behavior Game 13%

157 Intervention Strategies: Key
Know Well and Have Used 17. Response Cost 33% 18. Systematic Desensitization 15% 19. Token Economy 61% 20. Reinforcement Bundling 4% (Lie item) 21. Relaxation Training 29% 22. Punishment 46% 23. Shaping 47%

158 Decision Making re Behavior
Tier III consideration, perhaps sp ed Trend, continuation of trend, outcomes in relation to classroom and school expectations Gaps compared to peers, development norms, setting requirements Interference with normal classroom/school activities and goals Resources needed to produce success Need for special education: Specify what and why Expected benefits of special education Reschly RTI

159 Determining Eligibility for Emotional Disturbance Using RTI
Full and individual evaluation that is comprehensive Meet three prongs Eligible according to disability classification criteria Eligible due to adverse impact of disability on attainment of an appropriate education Eligible due to need for special education (specially designed instruction and related services) Reschly RTI

160 What is a Comprehensive Evaluation
Note Federal Regulation, (g) The child is assessed in all areas related to the suspected disability, including, if appropriate, health, vision, hearing, social and emotional status, general intelligence, academic performance, communicative status, and motor abilities. (34 C.F.R Meaning? Note “if appropriate” Reschly RTI

161 Multiple domains must be considered
Federal Requirements Multiple domains must be considered Screening in multiple domains followed by, if appropriate, …… If potential educationally related deficits are suggested by screening, THEN In depth assessment in the domain Principle: If screening suggests adequate functioning, then in depth assessment is wasteful and irrelevant Reschly RTI

162 Comprehensive Evaluation: After Tier II
Domain Screening If depth, if appropriate Possible Decision Health Nurse, records Referral MD Eval Medical condition Vision Ophthalmology Visual Impairment Hearing Otological, Audiologist Hearing Impairment Intelligence Records, Tch ratings, ach. tests Psychologist, Gen’l Intell Functioning (GIF) Sig subaverage GIF, possible MR, possible sp ed Reschly RTI

163 Comprehensive Evaluation: After Tier II
Domain Screening In Depth, If Appropriate Possible Decision Reading Class work, Tch eval., CBM, group tests Individual tests, diagnostic tests More intense intervention, possible sp ed Math Adaptive Behavior Records, Tch checklist Observations Parent interview Possible eligibility for MR Written Language Reschly RTI

164 Comprehensive Evaluation: Post Tier II
Domain Screening In depth, if appropriate Possible Decision Communication Tchr Observations, Sp/L screening Sp/L eval, tests, obs. Sp/Lang need, therapy Behavior Tchr judgment, checklists, nomination Observation, Interview, Indiv intervention Emotional Regulation More intense intervention, possible sp ed Motor Physical, Tch, PE observations Medical evaluation Reschly RTI

165 Emotional disturbance is defined as follows: 34 C. F. R. 300
Emotional disturbance is defined as follows: 34 C.F.R (a)(4) (IDEA, 2006) (i) Emotional disturbance means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. (ii) Emotional disturbance includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section. Reschly RTI

166 Mental Health Needs vs Educational Disabilities
Overlap, but are not the same: statistical fallacies Consider the 3 prongs of eligibility Anxiety disorders and depression, Adverse impact on education? Need for specially designed instruction? Needs for mental health services not same as need for special education Consider, anxious or depressed kids in typical classroom for E/BD? Reschly RTI

167 DSM-IV TR and IDEA ED Eligibility
DSM concepts inform but do not drive IDEA DSM diagnosis does not automatically mean IDEA eligibility Reported Prevalence of Mental Health Problems Depends on: Definition Duration—Chronic vs. Temporary Kind of Need-counseling, behavior supports, sp ed program Reschly RTI

168 Kinds of ED Recognized in DSM IV
Externalizing Problems (Under controlled behavior) Internalizing Problems (Over controlled behavior) Special Syndromes (Autism) Reschly RTI

169 Focus of Programs School Programs focus on externalizing disorders
 Oppositional Defiant Disorder Conduct Disorder Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Community Mental Health Greater emphasis on internalizing problems Schools need greater attention to internalizing problems Reschly RTI

170 Principles in ED Decision-Making
RTI: Unresponsive or insufficiently responsive to high quality interventions, etc. Multiple methods of data collection. RIOT Multiple settings, school settings, home, playground Multiple informants, child, teacher(s), peers, parents Persistence over time Convergent validity Explanations for inconsistent evidence Reschly RTI

171 Convergent Validity Principle
Consider broad data from different sources, settings, and methods Overcome biases of single method, source, or setting Include all relevant data Consistent results vs Inconsistent results Inconsistent: Seek further data, reconcile differences Consistent: More confidence in decision Match decision to convergence of the data Reschly RTI

172 Data Collection for Eligibility Decision Making
RIOT Principle Multiple Informants Multiple Settings Convergent Validity Principle Reschly RTI

173 Data Collection Methods: RIOT Principle
Review records (what to review, how, possible outcomes Interview relevant participants (child, parent, teacher) Observe behavior (based on referral questions and key settings) Test, i. e., present tasks directly to the student and interpret performance See later activity Reschly RTI

174 Data Collection: Sources of Information
Child Teachers and other school officials Parent Peers (sometimes) Reschly RTI

175 Data Collection: Relevant Settings
Classrooms Outside of school, e.g., adaptive behavior and MR Other school settings Reschly RTI

176 Applying RIOT Principle
Behavior Review Interview Observe Test Aggress- ive Behav Depress-ion Reschly RTI

177 Prevention of Special Education
President’s Commission (2002) Values and Outcomes: Efficacy of special education is not universally documented—lowered expectations, reduced academic press Later educational opportunities typically are better if learning and behavior problems can be resolved in early grades Probable later career opportunities are better if students can complete general education programs Prevention and early intervention enhance positive outcomes and expand educational and career opportunities Reschly RTI

178 RTI in Special Education Programs
Special education programs should be, Scientifically based Matched to student need Progress monitoring against goals (exit criteria) Formative evaluation Goal of passing benchmark tests, exiting Current special education programs???? Progress monitoring graphs???? Reschly RTI

179 Improving IEPs Connect individual evaluation with IEP with Special Education Interventions Critical IEP Components (relevant to the intervention) (not an exhaustive list) Present Levels of Educational and Behavioral Performance Measurable Annual Goals Specifically designed instruction provided by qualified personnel Participation in the general education curriculum and state wide assessments Reschly RTI

180 Measurable Annual Goals
Goals are described in objective, measurable terms Goals are stated in terms of the general education curriculum Rate of progress specified, graphed Skills specified Progress compared to goals Interventions changed or goals changed depending on progress Reschly RTI

181 Specially Designed Instruction
Uniqueness of special education is NOT in different methodologies BUT IS IN Intensity, frequency of progress monitoring and formative evaluation, precision of goals, and specificity of instruction Intensity involves time, group size Specificity of instruction, thoroughness of skills specification, intentional teaching, integration with other skills Application of explicit, systematic instructional methods Reschly RTI

182 Special Education Final Remarks
Special education can be effective Set of services brought to students, not a place Integrated with general education curriculum Strong accountability Implementation of scientifically based interventions with Specification of goals Frequent progress monitoring Formative evaluation Exit criteria Reschly RTI

183 Summary Moving from where we are to where we need to be is a huge challenge for the new century BUT I Believe The Best Is Yet To Be Reschly RTI

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