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Parent Involvement Presented by: Terri Collier, Title I Coordinator

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1 Parent Involvement Presented by: Terri Collier, Title I Coordinator
West Virginia Department of Education

2 “A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement, written by Anne Henderson and Karen L. Mapp, is a review and synthesis of current research on parent involvement. This report, produced by the National Center for Family & Community Connections with Schools, examines the influence of family and community involvement on student academic achievement and other outcomes” (Read quote from the opening section of the book.) “Now let’s look at the key findings of these studies.”

3 “The evidence is consistent, positive, and convincing: families have a major influence on their children’s achievement in school and through life.” A New Wave of Evidence—In Short Anne Henderson & Karen Mapp

4 Definition of Parent Involvement
The participation of parents in regular, two-way and meaningful communication involving student academic learning and other school activities; including ensuring that parents: play an integral role in assisting their child’s learning; are encouraged to be actively involved in their child’s education; are full partners in their child’s education and are included, as appropriate, in decision making and on advisory committees to assist in the education of their child; the carrying out of other activities, such as those in Title I, Sec “Let’s first look at the federal definition of parent involvement as found in Title IX of the No Child Left Behind Legislation. Congress first carved out this formal role for Title I parents in the early 1970s in response to lobbying by parents, community activists and educators. Since then, parental involvement has been a core principle in the program. With the passage of the recent reauthorization (No Child Left Behind) several requirements have been added in an effort to empower parents. Title IX General Provisions, Part A, Sec. 9101

5 Spheres of Influence Educators, “If the family would just do its job, we could do our job.” Parents, “I raised this child; now it is the school’s job to educate him/her.” Educators, “I cannot do my job without the help of my students’ families and the support of this community.” Parents, “I really need to know what is happening in school in order to help my child.”

6 School Family Student Community

7 Ann Shaver and Richard Walls, 1998
“Effects of Title I Parent Involvement on Student Reading and Mathematics Achievement” “Henderson & Mapp also cited a research study that was conducted in Marion County, West Virginia, in 1998 by Ann Shaver and Richard Walls. The study titled “Effect of Title I Parent Involvement on Student Reading and Mathematics Achievement” looked at the impact of school-based parent workshops on the achievement of 335 Title I students in 9 schools.” “The school district developed a series of workshops for parents that involved information, training, and discussion based on the parents’ interests. Parents received learning packets in reading & math, as well as training in how to use them.” Ann Shaver and Richard Walls, 1998

8 Results Normal Curve Equivalent Gains in Skill Area
High-Parent Involvement Children Low-Parent Involvement Children Total math 18.3 10.6 Math application 12.9 9.3 Total reading 13.3 4.4 Reading comprehension 10.9 4.7 “The students’ gains were compared with pretest scores, then measured against average national gains, on the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS).” (GO OVER SCORES)

9 Results High Parent Involvement Low Parent Involvement
“When this data is put on a bar graph, you see how dramatic the differences are between the math and reading comprehension of the students whose parents’ involvement was high and the students whose parents’ involvement was low.” High Parent Involvement Low Parent Involvement

10 Parents feel intimidated
\ Lack of Communication Parents feel intimidated Parents are too busy Have participants brainstorm in large group what they perceive to be the barriers to parent involvement. Make a list of barriers on chalkboard or any surface that can be erased. This list will be used later in the presentation. Stress to the audience that the purpose of this section is not to cast a negative light on the subject, but rather to understand the reasons parents are hesitant to become involved in their child’s education. This awareness can help schools to overcome the barriers and promote an effective parent involvement program that addresses the needs of the students and their parents. Based on research, the list should include the following: (Include the ones that your participants do not come up with) Parents/teachers do not easily communicate with each other because of issues regarding race, culture, socioeconomic status, and education. The parent may not speak English. Parents may come from a different culture and are intimidated by the unfamiliar customs and protocols at the school. Parents may feel that they do not have time to be involved due to job responsibilities, demands of younger children, other activities that their children are involved in such as athletics. Parents may not be able to attend school functions because of job schedules, lack of transportation, no one to care for small children, etc. Parents may be totally overwhelmed by life situations that may involve financial problems, job stresses, problems with other children, legal problems, illness, etc. Parents may have had negative experiences at school and have bad memories about perceived or real injustices. Parents may have grown up in families devoid of good parenting skills; and do not realize the need to be involved. Parents may fear that they do not have skills to help children learn. They may doubt their own literacy and do not want to look foolish or ignorant. Parents may feel hopeless and powerless. They may feel as though nothing will work, particularly if their child has had repeated difficulties. Parents are not taught how to be involved with school and teachers. Parent involvement programs are school-dominated. An additional activity could be to list things teachers do that create barriers such as using educational “lingo”/acronyms that parents do not understand (CSO’s, WESTEST, IEP, etc) or always having meetings during the day when many parents are working. Parents don’t care

11 Parent Involvement & Student Success
Students achieve more, regardless of socio-economic status, ethnic/racial background, or parents educational level. Students exhibit more positive attitudes and behavior. Students have higher graduation rates. Children who are the farthest behind make the greatest gains. Student behaviors, such as alcohol use, violence, and antisocial behavior decrease.

12 Parent Involvement and School Quality
Schools have improved teacher morale and higher ratings of teachers by parents. Schools have more support from families and better reputations in the community. Schools outperform identical programs without parent and family involvement. Schools where children are failing improve dramatically. Schools’ practices to inform and involve parents are stronger determinants of whether parents will be involved with their children’s education.

13 Parent Involvement & Program Design
For low-income families, programs offering home visits are more successful in involving parents. Frequent and effective communication from the school increases involvement. Parents are more likely to become involved when educators assist parents in helping their children with their schoolwork. Educators and administrators must receive professional training on working with parents. The parent/educator relationship must be developed into a comprehensive, well-planned partnership.

14 Barriers to Parent Involvement Programs
Parents/teachers do not easily communicate with each other because of issues regarding race, culture, socioeconomic status, and education There is a breakdown in communication when the educational environment is not sensitive to home- language and home culture Parent Involvement programs are school dominated Economic security limits the time parents devote to their child’s education

15 Barriers to Parent Involvement Programs
Teachers feel that parents do not have time/interest to interact Parents do not like to get involved because of memories from childhood school days Fear that parents do not have skills to help children learn and socialize Parents are not taught how to be involved with school and teachers Teachers lack training and support in working with parents

16 Parent Involvement Patterns
Partnerships tend to decline across the grades. Affluent communities currently have more positive family involvement, on the average. Schools in more economically depressed communities make more contacts with families about problems and difficulties their children are having. Single parents, parents who are employed outside the home, parents who live far from school, and fathers are less involved, on the average, at the school building.

17 Joyce L. Epstein Ph.D., Sociology, Johns Hopkins University
Director - Center on School, Family, and Community Partnerships Co-Director – School, Family, and Community Partnership Program of the Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk (CRESPAR)

18 The Keys to Successful Partnerships
Parenting Communicating Volunteering Learning at Home Decision-Making Collaborating with the Community

19 Categorizing the Parent Involvement Activities
Have participants place notes on the the large signs labeled with Epstein’s Six Keys to Successful School-Family-Community Involvement that you have displayed around the room. Discuss the results which will probably be similar to the proportions illustrated below. Schools usually do many types of communicating with parents (report cards, phone calls, letters,etc), but focus very little on the areas of parenting, decision making, and collaborating with the community. Also look for the types of communicating that illustrate communications from the home to the school. Effective communication will be addressed later in the presentation. Parenting Communicating Volunteering Learning at Home Decision Making Collaborating with the Community

20 Research Conclusions Just about all families care about their children, want them to succeed, and are eager to obtain information from schools and communities so as to remain good partners in their children’s education.

21 Research Conclusions Just about all teachers and administrators would like to involve families, but many do not know how to go about building positive and productive programs and are consequently fearful about trying. This creates a “rhetoric rut,” in which educators are stuck, expressing support for partnerships without taking any action.

22 Research Conclusions Just about all students at all levels want their families to be more knowledgeable partners about schooling and are willing to take active roles in assisting communications between home and school. However, students need much better information and guidance than most now receive about how their schools view partnerships and about how they can conduct important exchanges with their families about school activities, homework, and school decisions.

23 Working With Parents Make parent involvement a school-wide effort
Encourage involvement from the entire family Involve students in recruiting parents Create a warm, open atmosphere Schedule activities at the convenience of parents Offer special services for parents Find out why parents are distancing themselves Convey good news and information Recognize and commend involvement Involve parents in decision making

24 Title I Requirements Parent Involvement Policy Compact
Building Capacity for Involvement

25                   “This is an website is an excellent source for materials to use with parents. You can order various pamphlets, brochures, and activities for parents to do with their children. Many of the materials can be downloaded at no cost.”


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