Presentation on theme: "The Theory of Plate Tectonics. Earth’s Internal Layers The crust varies in thickness (4-60 km) oxygen, silicon, magnesium and iron The mantle (2885 km)"— Presentation transcript:
Earth’s Internal Layers The crust varies in thickness (4-60 km) oxygen, silicon, magnesium and iron The mantle (2885 km) silicon & oxygen Outer core (2270 km) iron & nickle – liquid Inner core (1218 km) iron & nickle - solid
The Rock Cycle Three types of rock found in the crust are: –Igneous: cooled magma/lava –Sedimentary: particles deposited by water flow. Organic/inorganic matter (fossils) –Metamorphic: as layers build up, this rock is formed when pressure and heat become great enough to change the rock chemically The rock cycle is completed through the tectonic process. Rock returns to the mantle, remelt, become magma, return to the crust as igneous rock.
Pangaea Pangaea is the name given to the single giant continent (Wegener 1912) Panthalassa (single ocean) The theory of continental drift states that the continents were once a single landmass that drifted apart and are still doing so.
The Theory of Seafloor Spresding New crust emerges from the rift valley in a mid-ocean ridge. Magma from the mantle pushes up through the rift and solidifies into new crust. New seafloor forms at the rift valleys and mid-ocean ridges, spreading away from the ridges until it returns as part of the rock cycle at subduction zones (trenches)
Seafloor spreading and continental drift combined by theory of plate tectonics More than 12 separate plates –Divergent boundary: two plates moving apart –Convergent boundary: two plates push together –Transform boundary: two plates moving past each other (earthquakes)
Boundary Interactions Divergent boundary (normal) –Tectonic plates moves in opposite directions –Mid-oceanic ridge forms as seafloor spreading creates new crust and seafloor as magma fills the gap created over geologic time. Convergent boundary (reverse) –Tectonic plates move towards each other –Oceanic subduction under continental : volcanoes, earthquakes Andes –Continental /continental convergence : Mountains Himaylayas – Mt. Everest Oceanic/oceanic: Trenches – Mariana trench, tsunamis Transform boundary (strike-slip) –Tectonic plates move past each other: Earthquakes –San Andeas fault in San Francisco
Bridge across the Álfagjá rift valley in southwest Iceland, the boundary between the Eurasian and North American continental tectonic plates.
Hot Spots The hot spot theory states that hot spots are small melting areas within the mantle where thermal plumes cause magma columns to push up, breaking the crust Hot spots do not move with tectonic plates because they originate in the mantle Volcanic isalnd chains are the result of the plate moving over a hot spot (Hawaii, Galapagos, etc.)
Plate movement Convection is the primary force driving seafloor spreading –Convection currents form as hot material rises and cold materials sink A second driving force comes from the seafloor spreading –As new seafloor forms, the plates tend to slide away from the elevated mid-ocean ridge