Presentation on theme: "The Periodic Table A map of the building block of matter."— Presentation transcript:
1 The Periodic Table A map of the building block of matter.
2 Periodic Law Periodic Law: Physical and chemical properties of the elements repeat in a regular pattern when they are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
3 Families or Groups & Periods Families or groups go down columns of the periodic table.There are 18 columns that have similar characteristics and they have the following names.1 – alkaline earth metals 15 – nitrogen group2 – alkali metals 16 – chalcogens3-12 – transition metals 17 – halogens13 – boron group 18 – noble gases14 – carbon groupPeriods go across the periodic table.
4 Directions of trends Increase Across – Decrease Down ElectronegativityAbility to attract electronsMost electronegative atoms are in upper right corner of periodic table (fluorine)That’s why atoms on the right gain electrons; they pull electrons from the metals on the left.Ionization EnergyEnergy required to remove an electron from an atomThe nucleus’s hold on its valence electrons
5 Direction of trends increase-down a group & decrease across a period Atomic RadiusRefers to size of an atomAs you move across the period, the attraction between valence electrons and the nucleus is stronger; resulting in smaller sizeMelting & Boiling PointsTemperature required to melt or boil an element.Metals increase as you go down a group; decrease across a period.Nonmetals decrease down a group and increase across a period.
6 Periodic Table: Metallic arrangement Layout of the Periodic Table: Metals vs. nonmetalsNonmetalsMetals
8 Across the Periodic Table Periods: Are arranged horizontally across the periodic table (rows 1-7)These elements have the same number of valence shells.2nd Period6th Period
9 Down the Periodic Table Family: Are arranged vertically down the periodic table (columns or group, or 1-8 A,B)These elements have the same number electrons in the outer most shells, the valence shell.Alkali Family:1 e- in the valence shellHalogen Family:7 e- in the valence shell
10 Infamous Families of the Periodic Table Notable families of the Periodic Table and some important members:AlkaliAlkaline (earth)Transition MetalsNoble GasHalogenChalcogens
11 Important members - the Elements Individual members of selected Elements & their characteristicsHHeLiNaKCaMgFeIClFPSSiONCAlZnCuAgBr
12 Periodic Table: Electron Behavior The periodic table can be classified by the behavior of the electrons
13 Trend in Atomic Radius Atomic Radius: The size of an atom is decreases as you move across a period and increases as you move down a family.
14 Trend in Ionization Potential The energy required to remove the valence electron from an atom. It is greatest in the upper right corner of the periodic table because these atoms hold on to their valence e- the tightest.
15 Trend in Electron Affinity The energy released when an electron is added to an atom. It is greatest in the upper right corner of the periodic table as these atoms have the greatest affinity for electrons.
16 Summary of Trends 1. Electron Configuration 2. Atomic Radius 3. Ionization Energy4. Electron Affinity