Presentation on theme: "Organisms & Their Environment 2.1. I. Ecology NAME AN ORGANISM THAT LEAVES IN COMPLETE ISOLATION FROM OTHER ORGANISMS... There isn’t one! (Give examples)"— Presentation transcript:
I. Ecology NAME AN ORGANISM THAT LEAVES IN COMPLETE ISOLATION FROM OTHER ORGANISMS... There isn’t one! (Give examples)
I. Ecology A. Ecology- The study of interactions between organisms and their environments 1. Big picture = Everything is connected to something else!
I. Ecology B. Biosphere- The portion of the earth that supports life (remember bio=life) 1. Includes air, land and oceans (not the core of the Earth…as far as we know) 2. Very thin layer of the Earth
I. Ecology 3. The biosphere contains biotic and abiotic factors a. Biotic Factors- Living or once- living things 1) Ex: mates, producers (food), predators, etc b. Abiotic Factors- Non-living things 1) Ex: temperatrue, wind, nitrogen, salt, rocks, soil, etc
II. Levels of Organization (see bulls eye handout) A. Organism- The living thing of interest. B. Population- A group of organisms of the same species, in the same area, at the same time. 1. Some members will compete for food, water, shelter, mates, etc
II. Levels of Organization C. Biological Community- Populations that interact in the same area at the same time. 1. Includes multiple different species (all living things) 2. Ex: Lions, zebras, trees, grass in African plains
II. Levels of Organization D. Ecosystem- An area of interaction between living and non-living things 1. Terrestrial- Located on Land 2. Aquatic- Located in water E. Biome- Large group of ecosystems that share the same climate 1. Marine, Grassland, Dessert, etc
II. Levels of Organization E. Organisms in Ecosystems 1. Habitat- Specific place where an organism lives its life a. Ex: Under a log 2. Niche- Strategies and adaptations that an organism uses to meet its needs that sets it apart. a. One habitat may have many niches
II. Levels of Organization a. One habitat may have many niches b. Niches reduce competition for resources 1) Ex: Under a log… »Centipedes trap beetles for food »Worms get nutrients from soil »Ants eat dead insects »Millipede eats decaying leaves
III. Survival Relationships A.Symbiosis- A permanent relationship between two organisms of different species 1. Means “living together” 2. Helps species survive
III. Survival Relationships B. Mutualism- Both organisms benefit 1. Ants on an Acacia tree attack anything that tries to feed on the tree while the Acacia tree provides shelter for the ants 2. Everybody wins!!!
III. Survival Relationships C. Commensalism- One organism benefits and one is unaffected 1. Barnacles attach to whales for transportation. This makes no difference to the whale.
III. Survival Relationships D. Parasitism- One organism benefits while the other is harmed 1. Usually does not kill the host…Why? 2. Tapeworms live in the digestive tract and steal nutrients from its host. Host may become malnourished.
III. Survival Relationships E. Predator/Prey- One organism hunts and kills another for food. 1. Not actually considered a symbiotic relationship because the organism dies (not “permanent”). 2. Ex: Cougar eats a rabbit.
Review What is ecology? What are the 3 parts of the biosphere? What’s the difference between biotic factors and abiotic factors? From smallest to largest, what are the levels of organization?
Review What’s the difference between a habitat and a niche? Why is a niche good? List and describe the 3 symbiotic relationships.