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Principles of Ecology Chapter 15 and 16.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Ecology Chapter 15 and 16."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Ecology Chapter 15 and 16

2 What would an ecologist study or look for in the environment?
What is Ecology? Ecology: the study of interactions among organisms and living and nonliving components of their environments. Reveals relationships among living and non-living parts of the world Observed both in the lab and the environment What would an ecologist study or look for in the environment?

3 Aspects of Ecological Study
Biosphere: portion of the earth that supports life. Includes: Atmosphere Hydrosphere: Oceans and Lakes Lithosphere: Terrestrial Earth Ecosphere: All living organisms

4 Non-Living Environment
Abiotic Factors: non-living parts of an organism’s environment Examples: Air & Water Temperatures Moisture & Precipitation Light Soil Wind Why are abiotic factors important in ecology? How do they effect living organisms?

5 Importance of Water! Why introduce water as something we should study?
Because all living things need water! We will be studying how the properties of water effects what can live there.

6 Where’s all the water? Oceans: 97.2 % Icecaps and Glaciers: 2.0 %
Groundwater: 0.62% Atmosphere: 0.001% Freshwater: % Rivers: % Can’t Use! Useable Freshwater

7 Living Environment Biotic Factors: all the living things that inhabit an environment. Examples: look familiar? Animals Plants Fungi Protists Bacteria

8 Levels of Ecological Organization
Biosphere (most diverse) Ecosystem Community Population Individual (single organism)

9 Levels of Ecological Organization
Individual: Made of cells Uses energy (food) Reproduces Responds and adapts Grows and develops What do we know these as?

10 Levels of Ecological Organization
Population: A group of organisms that: Are all the same species Interbreed Live in the same area at the same time Members of a population may compete with each other for: food, water, mates, or other resources

11 Levels of Ecological Organization
Community: Made of interacting populations in a certain area at a certain time In a community a change in one population may cause changes in other populations How can one population influence other populations?

12 Levels of Ecological Organization
Ecosystem: Is made up of interacting populations in a biological community and the community’s abiotic factors 2 kinds: Terrestrial Forest, desert, grassland, tundra, mountains Aquatic Pond, lake, river, deep ocean, reef, estuary

13 What level is this?

14 Organisms in Ecosystems
Habitat: the place where an organism lives out its life Examples: grasslands, trees, muddy banks Niche: the role and position a species has in its environment How it meets the needs for survival Includes all interactions with the biotic and abiotic parts of its habitat

15 Niche Examples: On forest floor there is competition for food and space: Millipedes – eat decaying leaves Centipedes – eat beetles and other animals Ants – eat dead insects Earthworms – take organic nutrients from the soil Fungi – take nutrients from decaying organic material

16 Living Relationships Some species increase their chance of survival by developing relationships with other organisms Some interactions are harmful to one species, others are beneficial

17 Relationships cont. Predator – Prey relationship
Predator: animals that consume other animals Prey: animals that are consumed Examples: Lions & wildebeests Symbiosis: “living together” relationship in which there is a close and permanent association between different species

18 Relationships cont. Commensalism
relationship in which one species benefits, while the other species is neither benefited nor harmed Examples: Sea anemone & clownfish Shark & remora fish

19 Relationships cont. Mutualism: Parasitism:
Both species benefit from the relationship Examples: Ants and acacia trees Hammerhead sharks & cleaner fish Parasitism: One species benefits while the other is harmed Fleas and dogs Ticks and deer Tapeworms and humans

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