2 What would an ecologist study or look for in the environment? What is Ecology?Ecology: the study of interactions among organisms and living and nonliving components of their environments.Reveals relationships among living and non-living parts of the worldObserved both in the lab and the environmentWhat would an ecologist study or look for in the environment?
3 Aspects of Ecological Study Biosphere: portion of the earth that supports life.Includes:AtmosphereHydrosphere:Oceans and LakesLithosphere:Terrestrial EarthEcosphere:All living organisms
4 Non-Living Environment Abiotic Factors: non-living parts of an organism’s environmentExamples:Air & Water TemperaturesMoisture & PrecipitationLightSoilWindWhy are abiotic factors important in ecology?How do they effect living organisms?
5 Importance of Water! Why introduce water as something we should study? Because all living things need water!We will be studying how the properties of water effects what can live there.
6 Where’s all the water? Oceans: 97.2 % Icecaps and Glaciers: 2.0 % Groundwater: 0.62%Atmosphere: 0.001%Freshwater: %Rivers: %Can’t Use!Useable Freshwater
7 Living EnvironmentBiotic Factors: all the living things that inhabit an environment.Examples: look familiar?AnimalsPlantsFungiProtistsBacteria
8 Levels of Ecological Organization Biosphere (most diverse)EcosystemCommunityPopulationIndividual (single organism)
9 Levels of Ecological Organization Individual:Made of cellsUses energy (food)ReproducesResponds and adaptsGrows and developsWhat do we know these as?
10 Levels of Ecological Organization Population:A group of organisms that:Are all the same speciesInterbreedLive in the same area at the same timeMembers of a population may compete with each other for:food, water, mates, or other resources
11 Levels of Ecological Organization Community:Made of interacting populations in a certain area at a certain timeIn a community a change in one population may cause changes in other populationsHow can one population influence other populations?
12 Levels of Ecological Organization Ecosystem:Is made up of interacting populations in a biological community and the community’s abiotic factors2 kinds:TerrestrialForest, desert, grassland, tundra, mountainsAquaticPond, lake, river, deep ocean, reef, estuary
14 Organisms in Ecosystems Habitat: the place where an organism lives out its lifeExamples: grasslands, trees, muddy banksNiche: the role and position a species has in its environmentHow it meets the needs for survivalIncludes all interactions with the biotic and abiotic parts of its habitat
15 NicheExamples:On forest floor there is competition for food and space:Millipedes – eat decaying leavesCentipedes – eat beetles and other animalsAnts – eat dead insectsEarthworms – take organic nutrients from the soilFungi – take nutrients from decaying organic material
16 Living RelationshipsSome species increase their chance of survival by developing relationships with other organismsSome interactions are harmful to one species, others are beneficial
17 Relationships cont. Predator – Prey relationship Predator: animals that consume other animalsPrey: animals that are consumedExamples:Lions & wildebeestsSymbiosis: “living together”relationship in which there is a close and permanent association between different species
18 Relationships cont. Commensalism relationship in which one species benefits, while the other species is neither benefited nor harmedExamples:Sea anemone & clownfishShark & remora fish
19 Relationships cont. Mutualism: Parasitism: Both species benefit from the relationshipExamples:Ants and acacia treesHammerhead sharks & cleaner fishParasitism:One species benefits while the other is harmedFleas and dogsTicks and deerTapeworms and humans