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1 The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme as a Contributor to GCOS Slobodan Nickovic WMO Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme as a Contributor to GCOS Slobodan Nickovic WMO Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme as a Contributor to GCOS Slobodan Nickovic WMO Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme

2 2 GAW programme The essential climate variables (IGACO) Aerosol Ozone Green-house gases

3 3 GAW aerosol indirect and the direct effect of aerosols make the two largest contributions to the total uncertainty of the radiative forcing, so impacting the climate assessments. The ongoing Joint GOS-GAW Pilot Project: NRT delivery and use of the aerosol surface observations is a part of the implementation of WIGOS/WIS.

4 4 Compiled by combining data from satellites with surface-based aerosol sun- photometer data. Satellite observations were validated using ground-based AOD observations.Plots Courtesy of S. Kinne, MPI, Hamburg, Germany Long term mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) GAW aerosol

5 5 GAW Aerosol Lidar Network (GALION) Northern Hemisphere Regional networks AD-NET, ALINE, CISLiNet, EARLINET, MPLNET, NDACC, REALM ~105 lidar sites GAW aerosol

6 6 The Ground-based Global AOD Network Latitudinal distribution Polar regions: 4 Midlatitude North:50 Tropics:26 Midlatitude South:10 Total 90 Major data gaps Africa, Asia, India, Polar region and Oceans International: AERONET, BSRN, GAWPFR, SKYNET Courtesy of Chris Wehrli Davos AOD Calibration centre National: Australia, China, Finland, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Russia, USA(4) GAW aerosol

7 7 WMO WWRP/GAW Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System SDS-WAS Mission To enhance the ability of countries to deliver timely and quality sand and dust storm forecasts, observations, information and knowledge to users through an international partnership of research and operational communities Dust impacts : Climate Health Transport Marine biochemistry GAW aerosol

8 8 Meteosat Second Generation: On-line qualitative dust verification / surveillance In collaboration with the Spanish Institute of Meteorology Dust monitoring MSG satellite SAF_NowCasting with MSG satellite 3x3 km 2 15 min step (day and night) Under development: SeaWifs, Modis, OMI Satellite-based sensors

9 9 Bloom of Trichodesmium - Canary Islands, August 2004Dust over W Africa, July 2004 Canary Islands GAW aerosol SDS-WAS WMO cooperation with the United Nations Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environment Protection (GESAMP) In 2007, WMO-lead Working Group The Atmospheric Input of Chemicals to the Ocean is established

10 10 18 UTC, 7 May 2002 30-hr forecast Forecast Models GALION Surface-based LIDAR NASA A-Train MODIS CALIPSO GAW/AERONET/SKYNET Surface-based AOD Integrated Aerosol Observation/Modelling European PM10 GAW aerosol

11 11 The latest analysis from the WMO-GAW Global Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network: CO 2 N 2 O have reached new highs in 2006 CO 2 at 381.2 ppm ; N 2 O at 320.1 ppb. CH 4 almost unchanged - 1782 ppb. These values are higher than those in pre-industrial times by 36%, 19% and 155%, respectively. Some of the CFCs still have a serious impact on the atmospheric greenhouse effect. GHG are monitored as part of the GAW network. GAW GHG

12 12 WMO Antarctic Ozone Bulletins An example of a need for integrated products in near-real time GAW ozone

13 13 Last Dobson Intercomparison - in Buenos Aires (Nov/Dec 2006) A Dobson intercomparison for RA I (S. Africa) - planned for February/March 2009. Dobson intercomparison for South America (Buenos Aires) - planned for late 2009/early 2010 GAW ozone

14 14 Brewer events The 10 th Biennial WMO Brewer workshop was held in Norhwich, UK (June 2007) A Brewer workshop for Asia was held in Seoul in October 2007 GAW ozone

15 15 A workshop (April 2007) analyzed the quality of Dobson and Brewer data in comparison to satellite data. About 50% of the stations are in good shape The other half has smaller or bigger problems Stations managers have received instructions on how to improve the quality of the data GAW ozone

16 16 A joint GAW/NDACC/IGACO-O 3 meeting was held in Geneva on 21- 23 May 2008. Near real time delivery of data Discussion on differences between Dobson, Brewer, UV/Vis and FT-IR Interferences and seasonal dependencies GAW ozone

17 17 The triennial WMO/UNEP Ozone Research Managers Meeting - Geneva, 18-21 May 2008. National reports Gaps in the network Research needs Data delivery and archiving Capacity building GAW ozone

18 18 2008 Measurement Sites for Carbon Cycle Gases Courtesy: J. Battler, NOAA GAW GHG

19 19 Other Expansion Efforts Terrestrial Carbon Observation System – (TCOS) Siberia (MPI – Jena) Cape Verde Observatory (MPI – Jena; York University) Arctic CH 4 sites (Tiksi, Cherski) Quality Control – Ongoing flask sample comparisons Canada (Alert) New Zealand (Baring Head) France (Mace Head) German (Ochsenkopf) New efforts to compare NOAA flask samples NCAR (Niwot Ridge, CO) Spain (Tenerife) Italy (Lampedusa) Courtesy: J. Battler, NOAA GAW GHG

20 20 WMO-GAW Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin GAW GHG

21 21 Fiftieth Anniversary of the Global CO 2 Record – Kona, HI Goal was to bring policy makers, scientists, and businesses together to discuss the critical role of long term observations of CO 2 in the past, present, and future Cosponsored by WMO, NOAA, Chicago Climate Exchange, Peabody Energy, American Electric Power, Science & Technology Corporation, Natl Marine Sanctuary Foundation, et al. Courtesy: J. Battler, NOAA GAW GHG

22 22 Other Events 14 th WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques, September 10-13, 2007, Helsinki, Finland More emphasis on isotopes a focus of the meeting. Scientific Advisory Group September 14, 2007 adopted N 2 O Measurement Guidelines, Precursor to introducing proposal for GCOS adoption of WMO/GAW N 2 O observation network. Courtesy: J. Battler, NOAA GAW GHG

23 23 A Place to Go Goal: Establish an international observation and analysis system for verifying greenhouse gas emission reduction efforts. To be build on current global observation, modeling, and analysis capabilities To serve as a backbone in a global effort to verify reduction of GHG emissions. To support national and international assessments (e.g., CCSP, IPCC). Courtesy: J. Battler, NOAA GAW GHG

24 24 Path Forward to Address 21 st Century needs (25 April Science Perspectives) Observation & Reanalysis (e.g., CarbonTracker-ish) Grounded on surface-based measurements Commercial and private aircraft Satellite Validation AIRS SCHIAMACHY OCO – 2008 GOSAT – 2009 ASCENT – 2010, 12? (active laser; surface) Courtesy: J. Battler, NOAA

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