8 North - Climate and Geography Warm, humid summers and cold snowy wintersShort growing season plus cold made farming difficult.Clear, fast riversCoastline full of bays.Cities develop near rivers and bays.Cities develop as trading centers.People begin to use waterpower to run factories.
9 PopulationHuge population increase in the North between 1800 and 1860, mostly through immigration.Irish, German, and other Europeans mostly settle in North.
10 Cities Cities develop in North as centers of trade. Factories were set up making textiles (cloth goods)Increase in factory work brought more people to live in the cities.Cities were crowded and dirty.Public education begun in cities for first time.Cities became important centers of art, culture, and education. Many city newspapers begun.
11 Economy The economy of the North was based on manufacturing. Manufacturing was done in the North’s factories.
12 Culture The culture of the North was determined by life in the cities. Both religion and education were organized.There were grammar (elementary) schools and churches in most towns.Very few boys, and almost no girls went on the secondary school.College was reserved for the wealthy.
13 Transportation Canals were mostly in the North. The Erie Canal was a huge success.Most of the railroads were in the North.30,000 miles of track was laid by 1850.Canals and railroads allowed northern businesses to grow.
14 Information About the South This starts a new section. Keep them separate.
15 Climate and GeographyWarm and sunny with long summers, mild winters. Lots of rain.Climate ideal for agriculture.Fertile soil ideal for growing crops.
16 PopulationPopulation of the South made up of Europeans (mostly from England and Scotland) and enslaved Africans.1/3 of the population were slaves.Most southerners lived on small farms.Only 1/4 of farmers owned slaves.Large farms called plantations were owned by the wealthy few who owned most of the slaves.
19 Cities Most southerners lived on farms. There were very few large cities.Plantations were self-sufficient and became like small towns.
20 Economy The economy of the South was based on agriculture. Cotton, tobacco, rice, sugar cane, and indigo (a plant that was used for blue dye) were sold as cash crops.Cotton became the most important crop after Ely Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin.More slaves were now needed to pick the cotton.Slavery became essential to the South’s economy.
21 Culture The upper class was the plantation owners and their families. Only children of plantation owners received any education.Small farmers had little or no education.The culture of the South revolved around plantation life.
22 Transportation The South was still dependant on the steamship. Railroads existed, but far less than in the North.
24 Slavery The North The South The South supported slavery Slavery was needed to support the agricultural economyThe North opposed slaverySlavery was morally wrong
25 State’s Rights The North The South The needs of the National Government overruled the needs of individual statesBreaking away from the U.S. was seen as an act of treasonThe needs of the individual states should not be overruled by the national governmentStates had the right to break away from the U.S.
26 The Economy The North The South Poor farmland and the abundance of mineral resourcesIndustry and factory work were the main source of incomeExcellent farmland, few mineral resources, and abundant slave laborFew factories, farming was the main source of income
27 Tariffs (Taxes on imported goods) The NorthThe SouthHigher tariffs meant that European goods wouldn’t outsell American made textile productsHigher tariffs meant that imported goods from Europe would cost moreHigh tariffs would hurt the South’s cotton economy
28 Culture The North The South Larger cities with larger populations The North was more diverse (free blacks and immigrants from Europe)More rural areas led people to be more independentThe South had a smaller population
29 Education The North The South Schools provided more educated workers for businesses and industryFree education was provided through High SchoolThe rural lifestyle did not require high levels of educationOnly rich planters could afford private tutors
30 Sectionalism The North The South Viewed the North as arrogant and believed that the Southern way of life was justifiedViewed themselves as being more cultured and traditional than the NorthViewed the South as a backward society that advocated slaveryViewed themselves as more educated and more modern that then South