Presentation on theme: "Elements and Principles of Design. The Elements of Design The elements of design are the basic components used as part of any composition. They are the."— Presentation transcript:
The Elements of Design The elements of design are the basic components used as part of any composition. They are the objects to be arranged, the constituent parts used to create the composition itself. In most situations the elements of design build upon one another, the former element helping to create the latter, and the elements described in this column are arranged as such. We will be focusing on the elements of point, line, form (shape), texture and color. Line Shape Texture Colour Pattern Space
Line A line is an element characterized by length and direction. Lines create contours and form, and are often used to convey a specific kind of feeling or point to an important feature in a design. Lines are also used to create perspective, and dominant directional lines are often adopted to create a sense of continuance in a composition. In addition, lines that are grouped together often create a sense of value, density or texture. Organic Rigid Differing weights
Shape The simplest definition of shape is a closed contour, an element defined by its perimeter. The three basic shapes are: circle, rectangle (square) and triangle. Form is the shape and structure of a dimensional element within a given composition. Form can be both two-dimensional and three- dimensional and can be realistic, abstract or somewhere in between. The terms form and shape are often used synonymously, which is why they are both included here. In reality, form is derived from the combination of point, line and shape. Contour Dimensional
Texture Texture is used to create surface appearance, and relates to the physical make-up of a given form. Texture often refers to the material that something is made of, and can be created using line, pattern or a combination of colours. Textures can be sharp, smooth, rough, furry, shiny, prickly, natural or unnatural. Texture is both a visual and a tactile phenomenon. Rough texture Organic texture
Colour Colour has the power to affect and influence the appearance and mood of an image or object. It can directly affect our emotions and can therefore be used in a artwork to intensify the viewer’s reaction towards the form or subject matter within. Colours such as orange and red can be warm and humid, while others such as blue and green can be cool and refreshing. Different effects can be created in an artwork through combinations of different colours placed next to each other. There are three main components of colour:
Hue: Where the colour is positioned on the colour wheel. Terms such as red, blue-green, and mauve all define the hue of a given color. Value: The general lightness or darkness of a colour. In general, how close to black or white a given colour is. Saturation: The intensity, or level of chroma, of a colour. The more gray a colour has in it, the less chroma it has.
Colour harmonies Colour harmonies serve to describe the relationships certain colours have to one another, and how they can be combined to create a palette of color. Complementary: A complementary relationship is a harmony of two colours on the opposite side of the colour wheel. When complementary colours are placed side-by-side they tend to enhance the intensity (chroma) of each other, and when they are blended together they tend to decrease the intensity of each other. Analogous: An analogous relationship is a harmony of colours whose hues are adjacent to one another on the colour wheel. Analogous colours tend to be families of colours such as blues (blue, blue-violet, blue-green) and yellows (yellow, yellow-orange, yellow-green). Triadic: A triadic relationship is a harmony of three colours equidistant from one another on the colour wheel. Primary colours and secondary colours are examples of colour triads.
Colour spaces Colour is typically organized in a hierarchal fashion, based on how colours are mixed. A colour space helps to define how the colours are mixed, based on the medium in which the colours are used. There are two different kinds of colour spaces: Subtractive: A subtractive colour space is the traditional colour space that most people refer to when they talk about colour. It is pigment-based colour, as in the mixing of paint. In a subtractive colour space, the pigments manipulate the wavelengths that our eyes see. The absence of any pigment produces white, and all pigments blended together produces black. Primary colours: Red, yellow, blue Secondary colours: Orange, green, violet
Additive: An additive colour space is an electronic colour space. It is light-based colour, as in the mixing of colour on the computer. In an additive colour space, light is added to the screen in differing amounts to produce colour. The absence of any light is black, the presence of all light, or light at full intensity, is white. Primary colours: Red, green, blue Secondary colours: Yellow, magenta, cyan Subtractive colour space Additive colour space
Pattern Pattern is the repetition of shape or form. It can also reflect the underlying structure of a design by organizing the surfaces or objects in the composition. There are many different kinds of patterns: Flowing: A flowing pattern is based on the repetition of an undulating line, and reflects a natural meandering through a composition. Branching: A branching pattern is the repetition of forking lines, or patterns of deviation. These kinds of patterns can be found in almost all plants, and in many other places in the natural world. Spiraling: A circular pattern, or a pattern that winds in and around itself.
Space Space creates the feeling of depth within an artwork. The two most important types of space are positive space, which is the area that the subject matter, shapes or forms take up within the artwork, and the negative space, which is the remaining area around the subject matter. In many instances the artist may divide their picture into three areas - the foreground, middle ground and background - to help establish space within the artwork. Space can be deep, shallow, sparse, restricted, open, flat positive or negative.
Tone The degree of light in a colour or shade is reffered to as tone. Perhaps tone’s most significant role in an artwork is to transform a shape into a form, making it look three-dimensional by using a variety of different tones of a colour or shade. Tone can also be used to create the illusion of space or depth. Tones can be subtle and subdued, strong and contrasting, and varied or limited.
The Principles of Design Bringing together or arranging the design elements within an artwork is achieved through the application of the design principles. The design principles are not regarded as rules that must be followed - rather, they are the devices used to help make an artwork hold together and achieve a strong aesthetic quality. Balance Rhythm Unity Proportion Emphasis
Balance To achieve a composition that is visually pleasing and generates a feeling of equilibrium and order, the artwork must appear to be balanced. There are two ways to achieve balance: symmetrical and Asymmetrical. Symmetrical Symmetrical balance occurs when the weight of a composition is evenly distributed around a central vertical or horizontal axis. Under normal circumstances it assumes identical forms on both sides of the axis. When symmetry occurs with similar, but not identical, forms it is called approximate symmetry. In addition, it is possible to build a composition equally around a central point resulting in radial symmetry 1. Symmetrical balance is also known as formal balance.
Asymmetrical Asymmetrical balance occurs when the weight of a composition is not evenly distributed around a central axis. It involves the arranging of objects of differing size in a composition such that they balance one another with their respective visual weights. Often there is one dominant form that is offset by many smaller forms. In general, asymmetrical compositions tend to have a greater sense of visual tension. Asymmetrical balance is also known as informal balance. Horizontal Approximate Radial Asymmetry symmetry horizontal symmetry symmetry
Rhythm Rhythm is the repetition or alternation of elements, often with defined intervals between them. Rhythm can create a sense of movement, and can establish pattern and texture. There are many different kinds of rhythm, often defined by the feeling it evokes when looking at it. Regular: A regular rhythm occurs when the intervals between the elements, and often the elements themselves, are similar in size or length. Flowing: A flowing rhythm gives a sense of movement, and is often more organic in nature. Progressive: A progressive rhythm shows a sequence of forms through a progression of steps. Regular rhythm Flowing rhythm Progressive rhythm
Unity In order to create an artwork that is united and whole, it is necessary to consider the placement of the design element within. Unity is achieved by creating an attachment between each of the elements, whether they are placed close to each other, touch, overlap, or come together to form part of a sequence. Unity is also formed through compositional structure. An implied triangle is often used to create a sense of unity within a composition. By placing the elements and/or subject matter in a triangle or a series of triangles, it is possible to make a united picture. The base of a triangle is solid and stable, therefore it is an ideal structure to use to achieve wholeness within a composition.
Proportion Proportion is the comparison of dimensions or distribution of forms. It is the relationship in scale between one element and another, or between a whole object and one of its parts. Differing proportions within a composition can relate to different kinds of balance or symmetry, and can help establish visual weight and depth. Proportion can help to imply emphasis - In the below examples, notice how the smaller elements seem to recede into the background while the larger elements come to the front.
Emphasis Emphasis relates to varying degrees of dominance in design. It determines the visual weight of a composition, establishes space and perspective, and often resolves where the eye goes first when looking at a design. There are three stages of dominance, each relating to the weight of a particular object within a composition. Dominant: The object given the most visual weight, the element of primary emphasis that advances to the foreground in the composition. Sub-dominant: The element of secondary emphasis, the elements in the middle ground of the composition. Subordinate: The object given the least visual weight, the element of tertiary emphasis that recedes to the background of the composition. In this example: The trees act as the dominant element. The house and hills as the secondary element. The mountains as the tertiary element.