2 Type of essay: Analytical An analytical essay “breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience” (Purdue owl).
3 Analytical Thesis statement: Example Example of an analytical thesis statement:An analysis of the college admission process reveals one challenge facing counselors: accepting students with high test scores or students with strong extracurricular backgrounds.The paper that follows should:Explain the analysis of the college admission processExplain the challenge facing admissions counselors
4 Type of essay: expository An expository essay explains something to the audience.
5 Expository thesis statement: example Example of expository thesis statement:The life of the typical college student is characterized by time spent studying, attending class, and socializing with peers.The paper that follows should:Explain how students spend their time studying, attending class, and socializing with peers.
6 Thesis statement: do this stuff Be specific.At the end of the first paragraph (most of the time)Revise after writing essay
7 Write your thesisAnalytical: An analysis of __________ reveals _________. Expository: ____________ is characterized by ________________.
8 Organization, Claims, and rhetorical devices Support Your thesisOrganization, Claims, and rhetorical devices
9 Organization: Chronological The order in which things occurred, from first to last. Works well for essays that trace how something developed over time or discussing trends in research or social conventions.
10 Organization: Cause and effect The cause (reason) is discussed first.This leads to a discussion of the effect (result).Works well for essays about how events or specific causes led to stages of development or changes in social thinking.
11 Organization: Problem/solution Presents a problem first: Details about problem, including its causeSuggests a solution: details that support the solution.Works well for essays about social issues and problems that have possible solutions.
12 Organization: Climactic order Most important idea first.Least important idea last.Works well for essays that are discussing various aspects of a topic, some of which support the thesis more strongly than others.
13 Organization: Process order Describes a sequence of actions.Basically “how-to” do something; a set of directions.Works well for essays telling readers how to complete a project or how to do something.
14 Organization: Classification Breaks topic into smaller parts (classifications).Discusses each classification in detail.Works well for essays that list a number of facts or ideas about a topic.
15 Organization: Compare/contrast Discusses similarities and differences between two ideas.Block form: One side is discussed in detail, then the second side is discussed.Point-by-point form: each part of the issue is compared/contrasted side by side.Works well for essays that are showing differences between two ideas.
16 Support the thesis Thesis guides essay Choose three claims to support thesis
17 Support: 4 types of claims Claims of fact or definition:This kind of claim persuades the reader to agree or disagree with the definition of something or with an established fact about something.Example: standardized testing is supposed to measure student knowledge, but what it really measures is how good students are at taking tests.
18 Support: Four types of claims Claims of cause and effect:This kind of claim persuades the reader that one thing, event, or person caused another thing or event to occur.Example: rates of high school graduation increased when high-stakes testing started.
19 Support: 4 types of claims Claims about value:This kind of claim persuades the reader of something’s worth, whether it is valuable or not, and/or how we would rate or classify something.Example: standardized testing is the biggest problem in our school systems today.
20 Support: 4 types of claims Claims about solutions or policies:These are claims that argue for or against a certain solution or policy approach to a problem.Example: Instead of drilling for oil in Alaska we should be focusing on ways to reduce oil consumption, such as researching renewable energy sources.
21 Rhetorical devices: ethos Appeal to credibilityWriter establishes knowledge and expertise about a subject.Works well with research or when you have experience with a subject.
22 Rhetorical devices: pathos Appeal to emotionCreates empathy or sympathy in the reader; uses emotional appeals to persuadeWorks well for topics that are emotional in nature.
23 Rhetorical devices: logos Appeal to logicUses logic, facts, and things that “make sense” to convince readerWorks well for issues that rely on facts and appeal to common sense to persuade.
24 Rhetorical devices: kairos Appeal to timelinessPertains to “right place at the right time” information.Works well for essays that are convincing people to take action about an issue.
25 Words of advice Use one method of organization. Use several claims to support your thesis.Use several rhetorical devices to convince your reader.
26 Create an outline Choose a method of organization. Choose three claims.Choose the best rhetorical devices to support those claims.Write down what you will present in the order it will appear in your essay.