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The Chemical Basis of Life

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Presentation on theme: "The Chemical Basis of Life"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Chemical Basis of Life

2 Objectives: Explain the relationship between elements, compounds, atoms, and molecules List the major elements and major minerals Discuss atomic structure and explain how an atom’s electron shells influence its ability to enter into chemical reactions

3 Objectives Compare and Contrast the three major types of chemical bonds List and describe the three basic types of chemical reactions that occur in living material

4 Terms Biochemistry- chemistry that deals with living organisms
Matter- anything that occupies space and has mass Elements- can’t be broken down into tow or more different substances EX: O2

5 Terms Compound- two or more elements together EX: CO2 or NaCl
Major elements- make up a large portion of our body Trace elements- are present in the body in small amounts

6 Chemical Symbols O- oxygen C- carbon H- Hydrogen N- Nitrogen
Ca- Calcium P- Phosphorus K- Potassium S- Sulfur Na- Sodium Cl- Clorine Fe- Iron I- Iodine

7 Atoms basic building block of all things
can be broken down into subatomic particles

8 Atomic Structure Protons positive found in the nucleus Neutrons

9 Atomic Structure Electrons negative found in the electron shell

10 Atomic Number and Weight
Atomic number- the number of protons in a nucleus Atomic weight- mass of an atom only the nucleus has weight equals the number of protons and neutrons

11 Electron Shells The number of electrons equals the number of protons
use the Bohr model to visualize electrons

12 Bohr Model Each ring is different energy level First shell holds two
Second shell holds 8 If outer shell is full, the atom won’t form bonds

13 Bohr Model Rule of Octet- says the outer shell can hold eight electrons

14 Isotopes All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons
They do not contain the same number of neutrons and these are called isotopes Ex: Most carbon has 6 electrons but carbon 14 has 8 atomic weight of 14

15 Chemical Bonds Molecule- any two or more atoms coming together
Compound- two or more different atoms come together NaCl

16 Ionic or Electrovalent Bonds
Forms by the transfer of electrons occurs as a result of electrically charged atoms called ions

17 Ionic Bonds Na needs to lose one, Cl needs to gain one


19 Covalent Bonds Shares Electrons


21 Hydrogen Bond Form due to unequal charge
no electrons are shared or transferred Water is a hydrogen bond Are very weak Allows water to change states

22 Chemical Reactions Synthesis- putting things together A + B = AB
Decomposition- take things apart AB= A + B Exchange AB + CD = AC + BD

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