Presentation on theme: "The Science in Ice Tea How sweet it is!. Definitions Concentration – The measure of the amount of one substance dissolved (or suspended) in another."— Presentation transcript:
Definitions Concentration – The measure of the amount of one substance dissolved (or suspended) in another. Solution – The combination of solute and solvent Solute – The stuff being dissolved (usually a solid) Solvent – The stuff doing the dissolving (usually a liquid)
What’s the solute and solvent? A spoonful of sugar in water? A drop of food coloring in water? Oregano in marinara sauce? With two liquids, usually the one of larger quantity is the solvent. However, no matter the quantity, water is always a solvent.
Water Water is considered the universal solvent. Not because it dissolves everything, but because it dissolves more solutes than any other solvent.
3 Kinds of Solutions Unsaturated Saturated Supersaturated - Can still dissolve more solute - Can still dissolve more solute - Has the maximum amount of solute that the solvent can dissolve - Has the maximum amount of solute that the solvent can dissolve - Start getting undissolved solute as sludge. - Start getting undissolved solute as sludge.
Solubility If the solute does dissolve in the solvent, it is said to be soluble in that solvent If the solute doesn’t dissolve, (floats on top or sinks to bottom) it is said to be insoluble in that solvent. Some solutes may be soluble in one solvent and insoluble in a different solvent
Liquid Pairs When one liquid dissolves in another liquid, they are said to be a miscible pair. If the two liquids don’t mix (one doesn’t dissolve in the other) they are said to be an immiscible pair.
What makes them miscible? Whether or not the pair is miscible depends on their polarity. While both polar and non-polar molecules are overall neutral, a polar molecule has a negative half and a positive half Two polar molecules are miscible. Two non-polar molecules are miscible A polar and a non-polar molecule together are immiscible.
Degrees of Separation Dissolving – The molecules of a solid separate from each other in a solvent. Ex. One salt crystal separates from the other crystals in a block. Or, a sugar molecule separates from other sugar molecules in a sugar cube.
Degrees continued Dissociation – when parts of the molecule separate from each other, each carrying a charge. Ex. In a salt crystal, the Na + separates from the Cl - Sugar is a covalent compound and doesn’t dissociate
Colligitave Properties Colligitave properties - properties that change as the concentration changes. The 2 most common examples are: Boiling Point Elevation Freezing Point Depression