Presentation on theme: "13.2 The Solution Process Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolution"— Presentation transcript:
1 13.2 The Solution Process Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolution Increasing the surface areaAgitating the solutionHeating the solventSolubility:There is a limit to the amount of solute that is dissolved by a solvent.Saturated solutions: a solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute
2 Unsaturated Solution: a solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution under the existing conditions.Supersaturated Solutions: a solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution under the same conditionsThe solubility of a substance is the amount of that substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent at a specific temperature.Solute-Solvent Interactions:“like dissolves like” is a good example for determining if substances will dissolve one another.
3 Ionic compounds:The polarity of water causes the charged ends to attract the ions of the ionic compound, and surrounds them so they separate from the other ionic molecules.This process with water is called hydration.Nonpolar Solvents:Ionic compounds are not usually soluble in nonpolar solvents.Liquid solutes and solvents that are not soluble in each other are called immiscible.Liquids that dissolve freely in one another are called miscible.
4 Pressure and solubility: Pressure has very little effect on the solubility of liquidsHowever, an increase in pressure increases gas solubility in liquids (CO2 in coke)Henry’s Law:The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid.
5 Temperature and Solubility: Increasing temp usually decreases gas solubility.Increasing temp usually increases solid’s solubility.Heat of Solution:The net amount of heat energy absorbed or released when a specific amount of solute dissolves in a solvent is the heat of solution.