Presentation on theme: "31.2 I. Hitler Advances Toward Supremacy A. Luftwaffe German Air Force."— Presentation transcript:
31.2 I. Hitler Advances Toward Supremacy A. Luftwaffe German Air Force
B. Blitzkrieg (9-1-39) Lightning war (take by surprise) At same time, Soviets invade Baltic States to create “Buffer zone” - Show video
C. Phony War Western front (Brit,France) begin preparing for war – but not here yet “sitzkrieg”
II. Scandanavia A. Identify the countries – Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark B. Why this region is imprt. to Hitler? Control water routes to and from Atlantic Control resources available Prevent another British Blockade Finland occupied by Soviets
B. Why did diplomacy over Scandanavia effectively end Chamberlain’s career as PM? He had promised peace – false Hitler in Scandanavia: Geographic threat to Britain C. What was significant about the results in Scandanavia?
German navy is weakened Winston Churchill = PM May 10, 1940 Germany begins invasion of France Failure of the Maginot Line
III. Fall of France A. Maginot Line B. How did it fail?
IV. Battle of Dunkirk A. Describe Geographic- Northern France British, French, and Belgian troops trapped by Germans along English Channel coast May 1940- 850 boats from England arrive to evacuate 300,000 Allied forces Show map and video http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/la unch_ani_fall_france_campaign.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/la unch_ani_fall_france_campaign.shtml
B. Why was the result significant for Britain? Royal Air Force (RAF) proves effective vs. Luftwaffe (protect evacuating ships) Save 300,000 troops Sign of survival, hope Nationalism – role of the common people ; determination to win “Wars are not won by evacuation.”
C. Why was this battle seen as a fatal mistake for Hitler? Had opportunity to wipe out Allied forces Western front may have been secured in 1940.
D. Why didn’t he finish the job when he had the chance? Eager to get to Russia Felt western front was under control without an invasion of Britain Felt he could still form alliance w/ Britain or force British surrender
V. Vichy and Free France Allied held up at Dunkirk- no one left to defend rest of France June 14 – March into Paris June 22 – France surrenders A. North/ South Division Germans occupy northern France Southern France = puppet government in city of Vichy led by Henri Petain = “COLLABORATORS”
“RESISTANCE” movement took many forms Charles de Gaulle – Free French govt. operating out of Britain
V. Battle of Britain A. Hitler expected Britain to seek peace B. Hitler surprised that Churchill and British willing to fight “Victory at all costs….for without victory there is no survival.” C. Hitler planned to invade Britain - would depend on : air supremacy over English Channel -destroy British air fields - destroy British industries
D. Begin bombing Aug 1940 (Aug 24 – Sept 6 - 1,000 planes a day to destroy RAF) British lost a lot……… But so did the Germans E. Night bombings of London (Sept 7-Nov 3)
1. The Blitz a. Constant bombings over London and other cities b.……but “DID NOT BREAK BRITISH MORALE” c.………..RAF prvent German air supremacy (down 1700 German aircraft) d….prevent German invasion …..survival ……will to win “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” Battle of Dunkirk and Battle of Britain Victories for British? Failures of Germany?
VI. Anglo-American Cooperation A. US - at first – Isolationist and neutral B. Gradually U.S. begins support of Britain w/ supplies – realize Hitler was a threat to American security…..(think….How?) C. US – give Britain 50 naval ships In return- US gets military base in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and British West Indies
D. Cash and carry policy- British pay cash for food and armaments and transport goods themselves Keeps US “neutral” E. British cant afford all equipment they need, so……. 1. Lend – Lease – US President (FDR) allowed to “lend” war equipment
F. Aug 9, 1941 Atlantic Charter Churchill and FDR Free trade right to choose govt. Destroy Nazi Tyranny
VII. Eastern Europe and Africa A. Mussolini dreams of Mediterranean empire [Stays neutral until June 1940] (military and industry not as advanced as others) B. June 10, 1940 – declare war on France and Britain (in N. Africa) Italy: Focus efforts on gaining territory in Africa, and E. Europe (Greece, Albania, Yugoslavia) Hitler had to send reinforcements in most cases.