Presentation on theme: "Syllabus Design The second of a series of workshops in second- language acquisition and instruction at the Language Training Center North Carolina State."— Presentation transcript:
Syllabus Design The second of a series of workshops in second- language acquisition and instruction at the Language Training Center North Carolina State University Wednesday, December 21, 2011 Sponsored by the Institute for International Education and the National Security Education Program
Questions to Ask When Designing a Syllabus For what purposes do my students want to acquire the target language? (e.g., for travel, for business purposes); In which setting will my students use the target language? (e.g., office, airline, store); What role will my students play in the target language and who will their potential interlocutors be? (e.g., traveler, sales person talking to clients, student in instructional setting);
Principle 1: Use Tasks as an Organizational Principle Don’t organize your syllabus according to grammar topics or texts Grammar should support the development of communicative skills Organize the syllabus around the end performance goals
Principle 2: Promote Learning by Doing Basic premise: a hands-on approach positively enhances a learner’s cognitive engagement Knowledge tied to real-world events and activities is better integrated into language teaching methods Allow students to lead; give them control in their learning
Principle 3: Promote Cooperative and Collaborative Learning Working in groups facilitates learning Learners must hear input and produce speech (e.g., interact and negotiate meaning) Teacher helps students to reach a potential that exceeds their current level of development Incorporate information-gaps and provide students opportunities to use their language in context
" The only place success comes before work is in the dictionary." -- May Smith
Learning Objectives, or better.. Performance Objectives
Creating Learning Objectives Performance objectives are the most important part of a LP Begins with ‘Students will be able to (SWBAT)….’ Use THEME as a springboard for identifying objectives for a lesson Performance objectives are MEASURABLE and DESCRIBE what Ss will be able to do in and with the Target Language in terms of meaningful language use Objectives focus on Students’ ability to accomplish a language function (e.g., to communicate real information)
Creating Learning Objectives Performance objectives should be: Expressed in terms of demonstrable/observable student behaviors (Bloom’s Taxonomy). Expressed in terms of a communicative/culminating activity Expressed as a real-life task or behavior Interesting and motivating for students
Examples: Vocabulary: directional words (right, left, next to, across from, etc.) Grammar: asking (and answering) questions Culture: Spain Objective: Using a street map of Madrid, SWBAT ask for and give directions to at least 3 popular historic places
Decisions and Considerations in Lesson Planning
Ask Yourself: What do I want my students to learn from this lesson? What are my objectives (measurable goals)? What is the topic or theme of this lesson? What resources (textbook, workbook, music, puppets, realia, etc.) are available? How will the lesson connect to what students already know? How will I begin and conclude the lesson? How will I arrange student groupings?
Ask Yourself: What activities will I use? Why should I teach this lesson? How well do I understand the content of the lesson? Do I know exactly what the students have to do during each activity? Do I know exactly how to set up an activity? How much time will I need for each activity? How will I organize the lesson into stages or sections? What will I do if I have too little or too much time?
Making Decisions about Lesson Content Ask yourself ‘What do I want students to learn and be able to do?’ Choose your TOPIC or theme (e.g., economy, family, traveling) Choose the CONTEXT (e.g., classroom environment, in the shopping center, informal gathering at friend’s house) Choose the specific LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS needed (e.g. asking and answering question, giving directions, praising)
Making Decisions about Activities/Tasks Activities are the ‘building blocks’ of a lesson Textbooks provide general ideas of how to implement an activity leaving the pedagogical procedure up to the teacher To make an activity successful, know what you will do and what your students will do
10 Lesson Planning Principles (non-negotiable) 1. Speak (nearly) 100% target language. 2. Keep students active and involved. 3. Create a theme and performance objective(s) with non-grammar focus for each lesson. 4. Use pair/group work and physical movement. 5. Reduce in-class time not directly related to communication.
6. Use visual & auditory aids. 7. Integrate culture into each lesson. 8. Keep a brisk pace to the lesson. 9. Contextualize all activities. 10. Do not be tied to the textbook. Choose (textbook) activities in a logical progression to lead to mastery of the objective(s).