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1914- 1918: The World at War 1914- 1918: The World at War.

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Presentation on theme: "1914- 1918: The World at War 1914- 1918: The World at War."— Presentation transcript:


2 1914- 1918: The World at War 1914- 1918: The World at War

3 Differing Viewpoints  “Family Feud”  “Fall of the Eagles”  “The War to End All Wars”  “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”

4 Causes of the War

5 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:

6 Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:

7 The Major Players: 1914-17 Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]

8 Europe in 1914

9 Militarism & Arms Race 187018801890190019101914 94130154268289398 Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%

10 Aggressive Nationalism

11 Posters: Wartime Propagand a

12 Australian Poster

13 American Poster

14 Financing the War

15 German Poster Think of Your Children!

16 Women and the War Effort

17 Financing the War

18 For Recruitment

19 Munitions Workers

20 French Women Factory Workers

21 German Women Factory Workers

22 Working in the Fields

23 A Woman Ambulance Driver

24 Red Cross Nurses

25 Women in the Army Auxiliary

26 Russian Women Soldiers

27 Spies e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy! e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy!

28 African Americans Follow Opportunity North Great Migration: 1.2 million African Americans moved North

29 The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”

30 A Multi-Front War

31 The Western Front

32 Trench Warfare

33 “No Man’s Land”

34 Americ a Joins the Allies

35 The Sinking of the Lusitania

36 The Zimmerman Telegram

37 The Yanks Are Coming! The Yanks Are Coming!

38 Americans in the Trenches

39 The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology

40 French Renault Tank

41 British Tank at Ypres

42 U-Boats

43 Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats

44 The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

45 11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed!

46 9,000,000 Dead 9,000,000 Dead

47 The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died

48 World War I Casualties

49 In a speech to Congress before the war ended, President Wilson outlined a vision of a “just and lasting peace.” His plan was called the Fourteen Points, and among its ideas were — Open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, the removal of trade barriers, and the reduction of military arms — A fair system to resolve disputes over colonies — Self-determination, or the right of people to decide their own political status and form their own nations — Establishing a League of Nations, or an organization of countries working together to settle disputes, protect democracy, and prevent future wars The Fourteen Points expressed a new philosophy that applied progressivism to U.S. foreign policy. The Fourteen Points declared that foreign policy should be based on morality, not just on what’s best for the nation. The Fourteen Points

50 The Paris Peace Conference President Wilson led American negotiators attending the peace conference in Paris in January 1919. – His attendance of the Paris Peace Conference made him the first U.S. President to visit Europe while in office. – Republicans criticized Wilson for leaving the country when it was trying to restore its economy. Wilson’s dream of international peace, though, required him to attend the conference as a fair and unbiased leader to prevent squabbling among European nations. The Paris Peace Conference began on January 12, 1919, with leaders representing 32 nations, or about three-quarters of the world’s population. The leaders of the victorious Allies—President Wilson, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, French premier Georges Clemenceau, and Italian prime minister Vittorio Orlando—became known as the Big Four. Germany and the Central Powers were not invited to attend.

51 Revenge Many Allies wanted to punish Germany for its role in the war. Georges Clemenceau accused Germany of tyrannical conduct, exemplified by the huge loss of life and the continued suffering of veterans. Conflicting Needs at the Peace Conference Independence Leaders of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia wanted to build new nations. Poland, divided between Germany and Russia, wanted one nation. Ho Chi Minh worked at the Paris Ritz hotel and asked France to free Vietnam. The delegates arrived at the Peace Conference with competing needs and desires. Better World President Wilson had a vision of a better world. He wanted nations to deal with each other openly and trade with each other fairly. Wanted countries to reduce their arsenal of weapons

52 The Treaty of Versailles The Allies eventually reached an agreement and presented the Treaty of Versailles to Germany in May. The treaty was harsher than Wilson wanted, requiring Germany to –Disarm its military forces –Pay $33 billion in reparations, or payments for damages and expenses caused by the war, which Germany could not afford –Take sole responsibility for starting the war The Central Powers also had to turn over their colonies to the Allies, to stay under Allied control until they could become independent. The treaty included some of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, such as the creation of a League of Nations and self-determination for some ethnic groups in Eastern and Central Europe. Germany strongly protested the treaty but signed it after France threatened military action.

53 Political The war led to the overthrow of monarchies in Russia, Austria- Hungary, Germany, and Turkey. It contributed to the rise of the Bolsheviks to power in Russia in 1917. It fanned the flames of revolts against colonialism in the Middle East and Southeast Asia. Economic WWI devastated European economies, giving the U.S. the economic lead. The U.S. still faced problems such as inflation, which left people struggling to afford ordinary items. Farmers, whose goods were less in demand than during the war, were hit hard. The Impact of World War I Social The war killed 14 million people and left 7 million men disabled. The war drew more than a million women into the U.S. workforce, which helped them pass the Nineteenth Amendment to get the vote. It also encouraged African Americans to move to northern cities for factory work.

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