Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Confederation to Constitution Sorry guys… you pretty much have to have ALL this information so get ready! WRITE EVERYTHING THAT IS IN ORANGE!!!!!"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 8 Confederation to Constitution Sorry guys… you pretty much have to have ALL this information so get ready! WRITE EVERYTHING THAT IS IN ORANGE!!!!!
Articles of Confederation – 1st try at government after independence… Strengths Won the American Revolution Created Treaty of Paris 1783 Created Northwest Ordinance 1787 Outlawed Slavery in the NW Territories
Articles of Confederation Weaknesses…. No chief executive or national courts (weak central government) No power to settle disputes between states or make treaties. No powers to tax, regulate trade, or settle disputes of land. (Only states had these powers) No international credibility No national currency (helped weaken the AOC) BOTH national governments AND each state was allowed to coin (make) it’s own type of money! How crazy is that?!?!?!
Shay’s Rebellion Group of farmers led by Daniel Shay rebelled against government b/c of high debts & high state taxes. New nation wasn’t in any real danger from rebellion. It was stopped easily but it did force those in charge of the government to look at our system under the Articles of Confederation and see that changes must be made. DIRECTLY LED TO THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION in Philadelphia in 1787 that brought us the new Constitution of the US.
SUPER IMPORTANT DATE… 1787 Constitutional Convention: CONSTITUTION WAS WRITTEN!!!! Also called Philadelphia Convention WAS CAUSED BY SHAY’S REBELLION!!!! When our Founding Fathers got together to discuss problems with the government established after we won the Am. Rev. Instead of revising the Articles of Confederation, they ended up writing a totally new system of government, which we still use today.
Issues at the Constitutional Convention…. OK so we need a new government… now how do we make one We know we need a central government (also called national government) with more power and we know we need there to be 3 equal (or mostly equal) branches so that one branch doesn’t get too big. The states will want to keep their powers for themselves but we saw under the Articles of Confederation that a system with TOO strong of individual states and no central power to bring them together as one, just doesn’t work.
How states will be represented in the new government….. Virginia Plan: 3 branches of gov. big states wanted representation in 2 houses of Congress both based on population. New Jersey Plan: small states wanted one house legislature where every state to be equal. Great Compromise: bicameral (2 house) legislature In one house states are represented according to population (House of Representatives) In the other, all states would have equal representation (Senate).
Still more issues in 1787…. Three-Fifths Compromise To determine how slaves would be counted for representation. Every 5 slaves would count as 3 free people for representation in Congress and for taxes. Trade Who should regulate it? CONGRESS!
To ratify (accept) or not to ratify… Federalists – DEBATED FOR RATIFICATION Wanted STRONG central government James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay Wrote and published essays called the Federalist Papers to help support ratification of the constitution. Anti-Federalists – AGAINST RATIFICATION Wanted stronger states w/ more people’s rights DEMANDED BILL OF RIGHTS BE ADDED TO PROTECT PEOPLE FROM THE GOVERNMENT!!! Thought the proposed constitution didn’t do enough to ensure people’s rights. Patrick Henry and George Mason
Most important compromise of all… BILL OF RIGHTS Anti-federalists DEMANDED the addition of these in order to protect the American people from the government. And would not ratify the Constitution until it was finished! 10 amendments added to the constitution. These amendments gave certain rights specifically to the people of the US and to the states.
How the grievances in the DOI were addressed in the new government… GrievanceConstitutionBill of Rights Taxation w/out representation Article 1: All powers to tax are held by congress which is elected by the people. Quartering of troops Amendment 3 No Due Process, No Speedy Trial, No Trial by Jury Amendments 5, 6, & 7 Abuses by elected officials Separation of Powers & Checks and Balances
7 Principals of Government Republicanism PEOPLE ELECT RULERS AND GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS!!! Separation of Powers Government where all jobs (Executive, Judicial, and Legislative) are all in one hand in TYRANNY!!! Each branch has it’s own job (Legislative Branch in Article I, Executive Branch in Article II, Judicial Branch in Article III) Limited Government Everyone must follow the laws, even the rulers and the laws apply the same to everyone so no one can take advantage.
7 Principals of Government cont…. Checks and Balances Each branch has specific ways to harness the power of the other branches to make sure no one branch gets too much power. President can Veto laws passed by Congress Congress can override those vetoes w/ a 2/3 majority vote The Supreme Court makes sure laws passed by Congress don’t go against the Constitution The Senate must agree to all people appointed by the President (judges, cabinet members, etc.)
7 Principals of Government cont… again! Popular Sovereignty POWER TO GOVERN COMES FROM THE PEOPLE (consent of the governed) THE PEOPLE RULE!!! People can create, alter, or abolish government Individual Rights Unalienable rights are found in the Bill of Rights and are guaranteed to be protected from the government and by the government. Federalism System where states and national (central/federal) governments share some powers and have some powers separate from one another.