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Indian Film Industry Produces more films than Hollywood (1100 vs 500 /yr.) Cheapest tickets in the world 4 billion attendance / year 30 different languages:

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Presentation on theme: "Indian Film Industry Produces more films than Hollywood (1100 vs 500 /yr.) Cheapest tickets in the world 4 billion attendance / year 30 different languages:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Indian Film Industry Produces more films than Hollywood (1100 vs 500 /yr.) Cheapest tickets in the world 4 billion attendance / year 30 different languages: –Hindi: Bollywood (Bombay-Mumbai) –Bengali: Tollywood and Dhaliwood (Calcutta) –Tamil: Kollywood (Madurai) –Telugi: (Hyderabad)-#2 to Bollywood –Marathi: (Mumbai) –Malayalam (Southwest tip) –Kannada (Southwest) –Punjab (Amristar)

2 Indian Films A democratic, but conservative society Film censorship board Most commercial films include song- and-dance routines that are integral to the story line Two to three hours long Sentimental, formulaic, melodramatic Songs, legends, values of local culture Independent films (art cinema) –Nair –Mehta (“maverick,” funded by West)

3 Bollywood (Hindi) Largest segment of industry Big musical productions (3 hrs) with traditional dances Highly melodramatic stories Traditionally, no kissing or forbidden topics (censors) Key influence on pop culture throughout Asian subcontinent Becoming more “Western” Some controversial topics Criticized by other regions that favor films based upon local regional traditions and values

4 Introduction to Hinduism

5 Misperceptions Hinduism is an organized religion It is polytheistic All Hindus are vegetarians All Hindus do yoga All Indians are Hindu

6 History World’s oldest existing religious tradition Indo-Aryan origins (Iran) Dravidian people (Indus Valley) 1500-1300 BCE –3102 BCE (birth of Krishna—stars) –5000-6000 BCE (legend of Rama) Revealed in the Vedas –Poetic hymns used in the sacrificial rites of the Aryan priests.Aryan Origin of Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism 3 rd largest in world (Christianity, Islam)

7 History Vedic civilization (2000 BCE) Religion evolved from hymn-singing and sacrifice to belief in Samsara / Karma The Vedas Ascetic hermits and forest wanderers Self-enlightenment One God or (Divine Reality)

8 Basic Beliefs An “approach to the universe” A way of life “Eternal law” (Sanātana Dharma) A religious tradition Religion and philosophy Wide range of beliefs and practices No central figure Does not purport to be the “only truth” Emphasis on practice vs. beliefs

9 Basic Beliefs Every soul (atman) is trapped in a cycle of birth, existence and death (Samsara) Ultimate goal is to escape the cycle (Moksha) Time is circular The aim of life is to live in a way that will cause one’s next life to be better

10 Basic Beliefs “ There are as many spiritual paths as there are spiritual aspirants. There are as many gods as there are devotees to suit the moods, spirits and social backgrounds of the devotees.” No hierarchical orthodoxy

11 Sanatana Dharma (eternal law) Everything in existence is an expression of God The proper aim of life is to become one with God Worldly delights & temptations divert one from this goal Dharma guides everyday ethics and duties (“the way”)

12 Maya The veil of illusion The prison of worldly senses Obsession with worldly things, distraction from spiritual purpose, forgetfulness Something to be feared, but no way out Four paths to penetrate the veil

13 The Four Paths Bhakti: Devotion Karma: Good works (action/reaction) Jnana: Knowledge Yoga: Discipline of mind and body (practice) Not mutually exclusive May pursue one or all Many paths to realization

14 Deities “A diverse system of thought that embraces elements of monotheism, monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism and atheism.”

15 Deities One Reality (Brahman) “Brahman is the unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this universe. “ Different interpretations by different schools of Hinduism Not the “personalized” Judeo- Christian God.

16 Deities One Reality (Brahman) Many manifestations Brahma: Creation Vishnu: Protector of Existence Shiva:Destruction

17 Deities One Reality (Brahman) Many manifestations Brahma: Creation Saraswathi—Goddess of wisdom Vishnu: Protector of Existence Kakshmi—Goddess of wealth Shiva:Destruction Kali—(a form of Shakti)

18 Deities Different traditions position deities differently in legends and mythology Shaktism: Shakti is the Supreme Being Divine force of universe, primal energy, Brahman’s female aspect Unfolds as desire, action, wisdom (Shiva’s or Kali’s trident) Other traditions (e.g.,Shaivism): –Active energy of male deities Vishu and Shiva

19 Ganesha (son of Shiva) This God of knowledge and the remover of obstacles is also the older son of Lord Shiva. Lord Ganesha is also called Vinayak (knowledgeable ) or Vighneshwer (god to remove obstacles). He is worshipped, or at least remembered, in the beginning of any auspicious performance for blessings and auspiciousness. A unique combination of his elephant-like head and a quick moving tiny mouse vehicle represents tremendous wisdom, intelligence, and presence of mind.

20 Ganesha Large head and ears: wisdom that one must have to attain perfection in life Right tusk: wisdom (also right leg over left) Left tusk: emotion (must break it) Four arms: omnipresent and omnipotent Ax: to cut emotions Lotus: peace and wisdom Laddos: sweet spiritual reward Yellow: purity, peace, truthfulness Big belly: capacity to deal with pleasant and unpleasant experiences in the world Mouse: Ego that can nibble at the good and noble (must control)

21 Vedic Pantheon (33 dieties) 8 Vasus (earthly) 11 Rudras (heavenly) 12 Adityas (intermediate) Indra

22 Vedic (Aryan) Dieties (2000-1200 BCE) Indra (the God of creation & war) Varuna (ruler of the worlds and world order) Dyaush-pita (the sky father) Prithivi mata ( the earth mother) Vayu (the wind God) Parjanya (the rain God) Surya (the sun God) Agni (the fire God, destroyer of darkness) Soma (the God of speech and inspiration) Ushas (the Goddess of dawn) Yama (the God of death) Adityas (12 dieities, 12 months of year) Brahmana, Aswini (twin Deities) Rudras (eight in number) Vasus (eight in number), Visvedevas ( ten in number) Indra

23 Vishnu The preserver and protector of creation Embodiment of mercy and goodness Keeps good and evil in balance When evil rises, other gods ask Vishnu to reincarnate in different human forms to conquer demons Epics highly symbolic cosmic morality plays

24 Forms of Lord Vishnu (avatars) Matsyavataram (Form of a fish) Kurmavataram (Form of a tortoise) Varahavataram (Form of a boar) Narasimhavataram (Form of a lion headed man) Vamanavataram (Form of a dwarf ) Parasuramavataram Ramavataram (Ram) Balaramavataram Krishnavataram -- Hare Krishna BUDDHA Kalkiavataram (yet to come)

25 Ramavataram (Ram) 7 th incarnation of Vishnu “The very soul of India” Legend is a “complete guide to God-realization and the path to righteousness” Married Sita, consort of Vishnu Over came ordeals, remained loyal to father, resisted temptations, joined with the Monkey King to defeat King Ravana

26 The "Hare Krishna" movement Based upon 9 th incarnation of Vishnu International Society for Krishna Consciousness Founded by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Bhagavad-Gita The words "Hare Krishna" are part of a mantra comprising three Sanskrit names of God (Vishnu), Hari, Krishna and RamamantraSanskritGodVishnuHariKrishnaRama

27 Eras 4 th -6 th C: Gupta dynasty –Dedicated temples to different deities –Science, medicine, art & literature –Strict caste system 8 th C: Shankara (reformer) –Upset with ritualism and caste system –Meditation over ritualism –Concept of maya –Brahma transcendent –Spiritual ignorance is the result of seeing the self

28 Eras 1893: Swami Vivekananda –World Parliament of Religions (Chicago) –Brought meditation and yoga to the West

29 Expansion to SE Asia Trade routes Malay empire Khmer empire Cham empire (Vietnam)

30 Hindu Scriptural Canon SHRUTIDivine recordings of cosmic truth; God-given; for priests & educated Vedas 1500-500 BCE; poetic liturgy Rig Veda Hymns of praise Sama Veda Chants Yajur Veda Priest handbook Atharva Veda Magic Brahmanas 900 BCE Vedic commentaries Aranyakas Philosophical & mystical Upanishads Religious instructions

31 Hindu Scriptural Canon SMRITICreated by man; for common person Itihasas Mahābhārata Bhagavad Gītā Ramayana Puranas Tantras Sutras Stotras Ashtavakra Gita Gherand Samhita Gita Govinda Hatha Yoga Pradipik “Historical” legends 2.5 million word history of India Climatic cosmic battle Legend of Ram 300 BCE: Cosmology Buddhist and Hindu “wisdom” Aphorisms Chanting prayers Mystical and esoteric 17 th C: Yoga manual 12 Th C: Bhakti; devotion & equality 15 th C: The “bible” of Yoga

32 Scriptures (Vedas=wisdom) Rig Veda Poems used in sacrifices & rites Praise the god being addressed Ask the god for favors or benefits Includes petitions for forgiveness which indicate a developed sense of morality –o it is evidence of a religion centered on free choices between good and evil.

33 Puranas (300 BCE) Interpretations of the Vedas For the common man Myths, parables and allegories 18: 3 groups of 6 Creation of universe Dharma Karma Reincarnation

34 Uphanishads (300 BCE) Interpretation of Vedas Spiritual instruction Meditation Teacher-student dialogues

35 The Paramahamsa Upanishad Mystic or spiritual interpretations on the VedasVedas 1. Narada (Lord of Events) inquired of the Lord of Love: "What is the state of the illumined man?" The Lord replied: "Hard to reach is the state Of the illumined man. Only a few Attain to it. But even one is enough. For he is the pure Self of the Scriptures; He is truly great because he serves me. And I reveal myself through him always." He has renounced all selfish attachments And observes no rites or ceremonies. He has only minimum possessions, And lives his life for the welfare of all.

36 2. He has no staff nor tuft nor sacred thread. He faces heat and cold, pleasure and pain, Honor and dishonor with equal calm. He is not affected by calumny, Pride, jealousy, status, joy, or sorrow, Greed, anger, or infatuation, Excitement, egoism, or other goads; For he knows he is neither body nor mind. The Paramahamsa Upanishad

37 Free from the sway of doubt and false knowledge He lives united with the Lord of Love. Who is ever serene, immutable, Indivisible, the source of all joy And wisdom. The Lord is his true home, His pilgrim's tuft of hair, his sacred thread; For he has entered the unitive state. The Paramahamsa Upanishad

38 3. Having renounced every selfish desire, He has found his rest in the Lord of Love. Wisdom is the staff that supports him now. Those who take a mendicant's staff while they Are still at the mercy of their senses Cannot escape enormous suffering. The illumined man knows this truth of life. The Paramahamsa Upanishad

39 4. For him the universe is his garment And the Lord not separate from himself. He offers no ancestral oblations; He praises nobody, blames nobody, Is never dependent on anyone. He has no need to repeat the mantram, No more need to practice meditation. The world of change and changeless reality Are one to him, for he sees all in God. The Paramahamsa Upanishad

40 5. The aspirant who is seeking the Lord Must free himself from selfish attachments To people, money, and possessions. When his mind sheds every selfish desire, He becomes free from the duality Of pleasure and pain and rules his senses. No more is he capable of ill will; No more is he subject to elation, For his senses come to rest in the Self. Entering into the unitive state, He attains the goal of evolution. Truly he attains the goal of evolution. The Paramahamsa Upanishad

41 Worship (Puja) Images (puja) Prayers Diagrams of the universe (yantra) Water, fruit, flowers and incense offerings Shri Haridra Ganesh Sidhi Yantra

42 Worship (Puja) Images (puja) Prayers Diagrams of the universe (yantra) Water, fruit, flowers and incense offerings Shri Maruti Yantra

43 Worship (Puja) Images (puja) Prayers Diagrams of the universe (yantra) Water, fruit, flowers and incense offerings

44 Worship (Puja) Images (puja) Prayers Diagrams of the universe (yantra) Water, fruit, flowers and incense offerings

45 Karma in Hinduism “Action” or deeds Law of cause and effect Beneficial events are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful events from past harmful actions Reincarnations Explains the problem of evil Must follow dharma to achieve liberation from the karma cycle

46 Ethic Family unity Kindness and caring Honesty Hard work Care for elderly in home Respect for animals (gods present in animals) Emphasis on education Community service

47 Family and Marriage (traditional) Patriarchial Few liberties for women Married women live with husbands’ families Sex before marriage criticized Widows cannot remarry (traditional view) Many marriages still arranged

48 Sikhism 5 th largest religion (23 million) Punjab region (N. India)—2 % 1469: Guru Nanak All people are all equal in the eyes of one God. (“There is no Hindu, no Muslim.”) Rejects Hindu ritual & caste system. Meditation, reincarnation, 10 gurus. Persecuted by Hindus and Muslims 1984: India Army attached Sikh temple Sikh extremists assassinated Indira Ghandi

49 Sikhism Beliefs The goal of human life is to break the cycle of birth's and deaths and merge with God. This can be accomplished by following the teachings of the Guru, meditation on the Holy Name and performance of acts of service and charity. The five cardinal vices are; Kam (lust), Krodh (anger), Lobh (greed), Moh (worldly attachment) and Ahankar (pride). If one can overcome these, they will achieve salvation. Rejection of all forms of blind rituals such as fasting, religious vegetarianism, pilgrimages, superstitions, veil wearing, yoga, as well as any form of idol worship. Permits widow remarriage. Golden Temple Amritsar, India

50 Jainism 800 BCE 1 % of Indian population Does not include a belief in an omnipotent supreme being or creator, but rather in an eternal universe governed by natural laws Rejects Vedas and Hindu deities Non-violence (ahimsa) is the core Vegetarianism Karma and reincarnation Influenced Ghandi

51 Sikh Attitude toward Jainism They have their heads plucked, drink dirty water and repeatedly beg … The daily routine of their mothers and fathers they give up, and their kith and kin bewail loudly. For them none gives barley rolls and food on leaves, nor performs last rites, nor lights earthen lamp. After death where shall they be cast? They ever remain filthy day and night, and bear not sacrificial marks on their brow. They ever sit in groups, as if mourning and go not into the True Court. With begging bowls slung round their loins and a clew in their hands, they walk in single file. They are neither disciples of Gorakh nor adorers of Shiva, nor Muslim Qazis and Mullah's." (Guru Nanak, Slok, pg. 149)

52 Sufism Encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love, the cultivation of the heart, and helping fellow man Originated in Middle East in 8 th C. (some believe it predates Islam) Mystic tradition Incorporates elements of Hindu, Sikh and Buddhist Cultures (some festivals are shared between the followers of these beliefs) Emphasis on cosmic love Sufic development involves the awakening of spiritual centers of perception that lie dormant in an individual

53 “Fire” by Deepa Mehta Main characters Sita and Rhada –Sita was Ram’s wife –Rhada was Krishna’s lover Sita’s trial by fire –Ram accused Sita of being unfaithful –She offered to walk in fire –If guilty, would be consumed –She walked through fire and was not burned

54 India Today Over 1 billion people Federal democratic republic Dozens of political parties and factions 60% agriculture High tech, manufacturing and service industries High emphasis on education Increasing Westernization Conservative society

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