Presentation on theme: "Environmental Science Chapter 1 Notes. Environmental Science: Is a multidisciplinary field that draws from all sciences (as well as other fields) Is considered."— Presentation transcript:
Environmental Science: Is a multidisciplinary field that draws from all sciences (as well as other fields) Is considered an applied science Focuses on three main areas: conservation and protection of natural resources environmental education and communication environmental research Was started when scientists realized how aspects from various fields of sciences, as well as other fields, played a part in the environment.
Species Extinction Three popular theories as to how and why the megafauna (extremely large animals) ceased to exist in North America: The blitzkreig (overkill) : they were over hunted Rapid climate shifts associated with the last ice age Disease (similar to influenza or rabies) was introduced with the arrival of humans
Hunter-Gathers People who obtain food by collecting plants and by hunting wild animals / scavenging their remains Usually migrated from place to place Still some remain in Amazon rain forest Cleared grassland by setting fires
Interesting fact about hunter-gatherers Skeletal remains of hunter-gatherers from as many as 20, 000 years ago show signs that these humans were responsible for the pollutions of their environment and even suffered deformities as a result.
Agricultural Revolution Caused human population growth, habitat loss, soil erosion, domestication of plants and animals Changed the food we eat Grasslands, forest, and wetlands were replaced with farmland (**habitats were destroyed) Caused floods, water shortage, infertile soil
Industrial Revolution Few restrictions were placed on air pollution during I.R. (burning of fossil fuels) Humans and animals powered tools for almost 10, 000 years (prior to I.R.) Greatly increased the efficiency of agriculture, industry, and transportation Urban areas grew –people moved from farms
Environmental Issues 2011 Resource depletion Pollution Loss of biodiversity
“The Tragedy of the Commons” Written by Garrett Hardin (in 1968) Influential essay Described the relationship between the short-term interest of the individual and the long-term interest of society Overall point is that someone or some group has to take responsibility for maintaining a resource Individuals may have to suffer loss (do without) for the overall betterment of all!!!
Economics and the Environment Supply and Demand: the greater the demand for a limited supply of something, the more it’s worth.
Economics and the Environment Continued: Cost and Benefits: balances the cost of the action against the benefits one expects from it. The cost of environmental regulations are often passed on to the consumer. Risk Assessment: a tool to help create cost-effective ways to protect our health and the environment.
Developed v’s Developing Countries Developed Country: have higher average incomes, slower population growth, diverse industrial economies, stronger support systems. Include US, Canada, Japan, and the countries of Western Europe Developing Countries: lower average incomes, simple and agricultural-based economies, and rapid population growth.
Population and Consumption Environmental problems in developed countries tend to be related to consumption. The major environmental problems in developing countries are related to population growth.
Ecological Footprint Shows the productive area of Earth needed to support one person in a particular country. It estimates the land used for crops, grazing, forest products, and housing. It also estimates the ocean area used to harvest seafood and the forest are needed to absorb the air pollution.
A Sustainable World Sustainability: the condition in which human needs are met in such a way that a human population can survive indefinitely. Is a primary goal of environmentalist.