4 Environmental Science: Is a interdisciplinary field of science that draws from many sciences (as well as other fields)Ex. Biology, chemistry, ecology,geology, earth science, geographyIs considered an applied science.Focuses on three main areas:conservation and protection of natural resourcesenvironmental education and communicationenvironmental researchFields: ecology , biology , chemistry , geology , geography
5 Biodiversity: Renewable Resource: The number and variety of species that live in the area.Earth has been home to millions of species. Yet only a fraction of those species are alive today.Biodegradable:Are pollutants that can be broken down by natural processes. Ex: food wasteNon-degradable: pollutants that cannot be broken down by natural processes. Ex: plastics, lead, mercuryMass Extinction:Large scale extinction (some natural and some man made)A resource that can be replaced relatively quickly by natural processes.ex. Fresh water, air soil, trees, cropsNonrenewable Resource:A resource that forms at a much slower rate than it is consumed
6 Agriculture: Agriculture Revolution: The practice of growing, breeding, and caring for plants and animals that are used for food, clothing, housing, transportation, etc.Dramatic changes that impacted human societies and their environment when man began practicing agriculture more than 10, 000 years ago.Closed System:Earth has been compared to a “spaceship” traveling through space, unable to dispose of waste or take on new supplies as it travels.The only thing that enters Earth’s atmosphere in large amounts is energy from the sun.The only thing that leaves is heat.
7 Species ExtinctionThree popular theories as to how and why the megafauna (extremely large animals) ceased to exist in North America:The blitzkreig (overkill) : they were over huntedRapid climate shifts associated with the last ice ageDisease (similar to influenza or rabies) wasintroduced with the arrival of humansMegafauna in North America: mammoths, camels, giant ground sloths, beavers as large as bears, saber-toothed cats, maned lions, giant short-faced bears, dire wolves7
8 Hunter-GathersPeople who obtain food by collecting plants and by hunting wild animals / scavenging their remainsUsually migrated from place to placeStill some remain in Amazon rain forestCleared grassland by setting fires
9 Which of the following was not caused by Hunter-Gatherers? Clearing of landIntroduction of non-native speciesSmog and industrial wasteExtinction of plants and animals
10 Impacts made by the hunter-gatherers Changed the landscape by moving plants.Skeletal remains of hunter-gatherers from as many as 20, 000 years ago show signs that these humans were responsible for the pollutions of their environment and even suffered deformities as a result.
11 Agricultural Revolution Caused human population growth, habitat loss, soil erosion, domestication of plants and animalsChanged the food we eatGrasslands, forest, and wetlands were replaced with farmland (**habitats were destroyed)Caused floods, water shortage, infertile soil
12 Industrial Revolution Few restrictions were placed on air pollution during I.R. (burning of fossil fuels became extensive – leading to major pollution)Humans and animals had powered tools for almost10, 000 years (prior to I.R.) now machines do.Greatly increased the efficiency of agriculture, industry, and transportationUrban areas grew –people moved from farms
13 Main Environmental Issues Resource depletionPollutionLoss of biodiversity
14 SpongeWhat are renewable and nonrenewable resources and give an example of each?How do we determine how resources are allocated?What is the tragedy of the commons?
15 Exit TicketDiscuss other roles in which Tragedy of the Commons occurs.
16 SpongeHumans have influenced 83% of the Earth’s surface. Does this number seem like a lot or a little? Some areas are more vulnerable to human influenced than others- why might this be?
17 Exit TicketAmerican make up 5% of the world’s population, own 30% of the world’s cars, and consume 25% of the world’s energy. By their first birthday, the average American will be responsible for more carbon dioxide emissions than a person in Tanzania generates in a lifetime.Why do different cultures use and consume things at different rates? What do these numbers indicate about contemporary American culture?
19 “The Tragedy of the Commons” Written by Garrett Hardin (in 1968)Influential essayDescribed the relationship between the short-term interest of the individual and the long-term interest of societyOverall point is that someone or some group has to take responsibility for maintaining a resource“If I don’t use this resource, someone else will.”
20 Earth’s Modern Commons are our “Natural Resources” Anything within the “Biosphere”World’s Oceans / Waterways ; Air ; Migrating Animals ;Forest ; Fossil Fuels / Nuclear Materials
21 Economics and the Environment Supply and Demand: the greater the demand for a limited supply of something, the more it’s worth.
22 Economics and the Environment Continued Cost benefit analysis: balances the cost of the action against the benefits one expects from it.The cost of environmentalregulations are often passedon to the consumer.“The cost to clean up after an oilspill is added to the price of gas”Risk Assessment: a tool tohelp create cost-effectiveways to protect our healthand the environment.
23 Developed v’s Developing Countries Developed Country: have higher average incomes, slower population growth, diverse industrial economies, stronger support systems.Include US, Canada,Japan, and the countriesof Western EuropeDeveloping Countries: loweraverage incomes, simple andagricultural-based economies,and rapid population growth.Ex: Ethiopia, China
24 Population and Consumption Environmental problems indeveloped countries tendto be related to consumption.The major environmentalproblems in developingcountries are related topopulation growth.
25 Ecological FootprintShows the productive area of Earth needed to support one person in a particular country.It estimates the land used for crops, grazing, forest products, and housing.It also estimates the ocean area used to harvest seafood and the forest are needed to absorb the air pollution.
26 A Sustainable WorldSustainability: the condition in which human needs are met in such a way that a human population can survive indefinitely.Is a primary goal of environmentalist.