Presentation on theme: "The Growth of Austria The House of Habsburg turns to the South and East."— Presentation transcript:
The Growth of Austria The House of Habsburg turns to the South and East
RAP: Defining the House of Habsburg 1.What do we already know about the Habsburgs? Brainstorm three ideas that relate to this ruling family and how they have played a role in the history of Europe that we have studied so far.
Habsburg rulers had always been focused West (HRE). After the Thirty Years War, though fighting off Louis and the French in the West, they turn their attention to the South and East.
The Austrian Empire is made up of a.Upper and Lower Austriac. Kingdom of Hungary b.Kingdom of Bohemia
Centralize the government and control the nobility in Bohemia and Hungary while facing down and defeating Habsburg enemies: France and Ottomans. Use text and notes to find the Habsburg solutions to these problems. A. Controlling the nobility and centralizing B. Defeating France and monarchy the Ottoman Empire
Nobles get to control estates and local administration of peasants/serfs as long as taxes and soldiers provided. Habsburgs reward loyal officers with land taken from rebellious nobles. New nobility superimposed on locals. No ties to local pop., but loyalty owed to Vienna! Military reformed along the lines of France (see France under Louis for specifics) as powerful army built to defeat enemies. Great leadership emerges with Prince Eugene of Savoy. Defeat Ottomans (1680’s), then French, then Ottomans again (1690’s), then French again (War of Spanish Succession), then Ottomans again (1711-1740). Habsburg Empire created on the Danube!!!!! 1680-1740 60 Years of Incredible success, luck, and growth for the Austrian monarchy!
Austrian Monarchy by 1740 a. International in culture, but with a strong German influence. Italian, Czech, Hungarian, German, Croatian names common around court. b. Landowners (aristocracy) all held together by loyalty to the monarchy. c. Landowners have few if any ties to serfs, as they rarely speak local lang. 1. Bohemian and Hungarian examples. d. Landowners given control of local administration and control over serfs with little interference from national government. 1. supply taxes and soldiers and no questions asked. e. No national diet. A COLLECTION OF TERRITORIES HELD TOGETHER BY A PERSONAL UNION. WORKS UNTIL THE AGE OF NATIONALISM-19 TH /20 TH CENTURY.
Prince Eugene of Savoy (Founder of Austrian State) for Habsburg overlords. a. reforms military along French lines (those of Le Tellier) b. Drives Turks out of Hungary (Peace of Karlowitz-1699) c. Wins battles against French in War of Spanish Succession and gain Spanish Netherlands, Italian possessions. d. Renews war against Turks and win control of Croatia, Wallechia, Trieste in 1739.
Kingdom of Bohemia Upper and Lower Austria Hungary and Balkan Possessions How do you hold these together in such a tough neighborhood? PRAGMATIC SANCTION (1713)
Signed by all nations, diets in the Austrian lands, as well as royal family, it guaranteed that the Austrian Empire was indivisible. Charles VI (r. 1710-40) has no male heir so lands pass to his daughter Maria Teresa. She is no sooner put on the throne than war breaks out to take Austrian lands. This is for another day.