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Presentation on theme: "ENZYMES!."— Presentation transcript:


2 What are Enzymes? PROTEINS!
Act as a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions They are NOT permanently changed in the process Reusable! Specific! End in –ase Sucrase Maltase Lactase

3 How Do Enzymes Work? Enzymes weaken bonds between compounds
This reduces the amount of energy needed to start a reaction Without Enzyme With Enzyme Energy Reactants Products Progress of the reaction

4 Enzyme-Substrate Complex
The substance the enzyme reacts on is the substrate The area where the enzyme binds to the substrate is the Active Site Enzyme Substrate Active Site

5 What Can Affect Enzyme Activity?
Environmental Conditions Cofactors and Coenzymes Enzyme Inhibitors

6 Environmental Conditions
Temperature High temperatures can unfold enzymes Most reactions require a specific temperature range to occur reliably pH Most reactions require a neutral pH to occur

7 Cofactors and Coenzymes
Inorganic substances and vitamins are sometimes needed for enzymes to function properly Ex: Iron must be present in the structure of hemoglobin in order for it to pick up oxygen

8 Enzyme Inhibitors Competitive inhibitor
Inhibit the function of a specific enzyme Competitive or noncompetitive Competitive Inhibitors Resemble the enzyme’s normal substrate and compete with it for the active site Substrate Enzyme Competitive inhibitor

9 Enzyme Inhibitors Noncompetitive Inhibitors
Do NOT enter the active site! Bind to a different area of the enzyme This causes the enzyme to change its shape, which alters the active site The enzyme can no longer bind to the substrate Enzyme Noncompetitive Inhibitor Substrate Altered Active site

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