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1 The Military in a Democracy: A U.S. Perspective.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Military in a Democracy: A U.S. Perspective."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Military in a Democracy: A U.S. Perspective

2 2 “….Clear and unchallenged civilian responsibility…”

3 3 Why Civilian Control in U.S.? Colonial immigrants victims of military oppression in native countries French and Indian/Seven Years War American Revolution

4 4 Role of the Military U.S. Constitution –form a more perfect union –establish justice –insure domestic tranquility –provide for common defense –promote general welfare –secure the blessings of liberty

5 5 1781-1917 Militia Act of 1792 The “Age of Free Security”- 1815-1917 –few external threats –no reason to challenge civilian control The Civil War 1861-1865 –President Lincoln –“citizen-soldier” concept in action

6 6 1918 - 1949 1945 - 1992 every U.S. President had served in the armed forces Military conscription only in major wars Post-WWII defense strategy shifted

7 7 The Cold War New policy of “containment” No military demobilization after WWII U.S. maintained large standing forces Reserve system was implemented

8 8 New Military Roles Military enters into law enforcement arena in 1980’s in support role 1986 drug trafficking designated a national security threat Military begins support for counter-drug law enforcement: –equipment –facilities –training –intelligence

9 9 Today’s Military Composed of a volunteer force Roles include: –National security –Humanitarian actions –Multinational operations –Peace operations –Fighting non-state terrorists –Law enforcement support –Environmental protection

10 10 Branches of Government

11 Executive Function President - Commander in Chief –National Command Authority –National Security Council (NSC) Secretary of Defense –Joint Chiefs of Staff –Departments = Administration –Combatant Commanders = Operations 11

12 12 President = an Elected Civilian Appoints officers and Secretary of Defense Submits budget Balances Foreign Policy and use of military

13 13 Congress ~ Senate and House of Representatives ~ to raise and support armies to provide and maintain a navy to provide for state militias when called into federal service

14 14 Legislative Function War Powers Regulation of military Promotions Budget Advise and Consent

15 15 War Powers Resolution requires consultation with Congress by President requires report by the President on specified deployments places a 60-90 day limit on deployments absent express Congressional consent

16 16 Judicial Functions Interpretation of the Law Criminal Appeals Civil Liability

17 17 Judicial Branch and the Military Supreme Court may hear appeals from Court of Military Appeals Suits may be brought against the U.S. government after exhausting administrative remedies

18 18 Defense Organization President –Commander in Chief of Armed Forces National Security Council –President –Vice President –Secretary of State –Secretary of Defense + others

19 19 Department of Defense Headed by Secretary of Defense –cabinet level status –directly controls the three service Secretaries A true civilian –must not have served in military during the past ten years

20 20 Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) Chairman Vice Chairman Chief of Staff – Army Chief of Naval Operations Chief of Staff – Air Force Commandant of the Marine Corps

21 21 Operational Chain of Command

22 22 Departmental Roles OSD tasks military departments Military Departments train and equip forces Chairman JCS plans and coordinates deployments and operations Unified Combatant Commands conduct the operations

23 23 Unified Combatant Commands The operational command of the U.S. forces Forces from 2 or more services Broad and continuing missions


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26 26 Coast Guard Under the Dept. of Homeland Security Dept. of Defense in times of war Primary role as a law enforcement agency Also a military service

27 27 Conclusion “…a Japanese politician was heard to remark that [General MacArthur’s] firing taught the Japanese more about democracy than anything else America had said or done because no Japanese citizen ever thought anyone could fire Douglas MacArthur, a god- like figure in Japan.” …Joseph R. Farrell

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