Presentation on theme: "Cellular Respiration: Food Energy Respiration= “Breathe” Energy released in cells with oxygen."— Presentation transcript:
Cellular Respiration: Food Energy Respiration= “Breathe” Energy released in cells with oxygen
Photosynthesis: Making Chemical Energy calorie: the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. The Calorie (capital C) that is used on food labels is a kilocalorie, or 1000 calories In order to measure how much energy there is in food, scientists burn the food in the presence of oxygen in a test tube, and see how much energy is released to make 1 gram of water raise 1 degree Celsius.
Cellular Respiration: Energy & Oxygen Cellular Respiration: process in mitochondria that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in presence of oxygen Formula for Cell Respiration: 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy Formula for Photosynthesis: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Respiration is just the opposite of Photosynthesi s
Cell respiration: Making Chemical Energy The activities of the cell powered by chemical fuels like Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) has structure similar to ATP but with only 2 phosphate groups POWER! Review (don’t copy): Online activitiy 7.3
Photosynthesis & Cell Respiration Plants Glucose (food) from Photosynthesis made in Chloroplast Formula for Photosynthesis: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Food energy for cells During Cell Respiration in Mitochondria Formula for Cell Respiration: 6O 2 + C6H 12 O 6 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy Animals Food Digested, molecules enter Bodies cells Food energy for cells During Cell Respiration in Mitochondria Formula for Cell Respiration: 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy Don’t copy this
Cellular Respiration: Energy & Oxygen 1 st Step in Cell Respiration: Glycolysis- where 1 molecule of glucose broken in ½ into 2 molecules pyruvic acid and 4 molecules of ATP outside mitochondria (2 used initially)
Glycolysis: Review Anaerobic: process that does not require oxygen Fermentation happens after Glycolysis when there is no oxygen. During Glycolysis, 2 ATP are used up, then 4 high-energy electrons passes to NAD+ to make NADH to hold the electrons, and add 2 phosphate groups, which makes 4 ADP into 4 ATP molecules and results in 2 pyruvic acids. This process is fast, but can only process until all of the electrons are taken up.
Fermentation Fermentation: releases energy from food molecules by producing ARP in the absence of oxygen. Alcoholic Fermentaiton: Pyruvic acid + NADH alcohol + CO2 + NAD+ 2 pyruvates turn into lactate each While NADH releases an electron to Become NAD+ Lactic Acid Fermentation: Pyruvic acid + NADH lactic acid + NAD+ 2 pyruvic acids turn into Acetaldehyde each releasing carbon dioxide and then acetaldehyde turns into ethyl alcohol. The Carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol are released as wastes. As this is going on, NADH releases an electron to become NAD+
Cellular Respiration: Energy & Oxygen 2 nd Step in CR: Krebs Cycle- in mitochondria pyruvic acid is broken into four C0 2 ; cycle produces 2 molecules of ATP
Krebs cycle This goes on twice because there are 2 pyruvic acid molecules produced from glycolysis Aerobic: process that requires oxygen. Pyruvic acid adds 3 molecules of H2O, and releases a CO2 and adds an electron to NAD+ making NADH. This forms Acetyl CoA which has 2 carbons. Acetyle CoA combines with a 4 carbon compound forming citric acid. Citric acid is broken down into a 5 carbon compound by releasing 2 CO2, electrons join NAD+ and FAD making NADH and FADH2, one ATP is generated by adding a P group to ADP.
Cellular Respiration: Energy & Oxygen Last step in CR: Electron Transport Chain- in mitochondria inner membrane using electrons from Krebs cycle to convert ADP into 34 ATP’s
Energy Released in ATP form Glycolysis produces 2 ATP molecules per glucose and that is without oxygen. In the presence of oxygen. The Krebs cycle and the Electron transport chain and ATP synthase action, it makes about 34 ATP molecules. The 36 ATP molecules the cell makes per glucose represent about 38% of the total energy of glucose.
Cellular Respiration Overview Glycolysis Fermentation Alcoholic Fermentation: Yeasts Produce = alcohol + CO 2 And NAD+ Lactic Acid Fermentation: Rapid exercise, body can’t supply enough O 2 for ATP, build Up in muscles, breath heavy = lactic acid and NAD+ Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain No Oxygen Oxygen Required For long term exercise, the body uses cellular respiration to produce energy
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