2 9-1 Chemical Pathways FOOD: Food is the main energy source of living things.One gram of the sugar glucose, when burned in the presence of oxygen, releases 3811 calories of heat energy.A calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram water up one Celsius degree.
3 A food Calorie (capital C) is not the same as a calorie (lowercase c). - A food Calorie is a kilocalorie, which equals 1000 calories.Glucose (food) is gradually broken down, and energy is released within cells.- Glycolysis starts the process.- When oxygen is present, glycolysis is followed by the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. If oxygen is not present, a different pathway is taken.
4 Cellular RespirationCellular Respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen.Glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain make up the process of cellular respiration.Equation:Oxygen + glucose carbon dioxide water + energy
5 Glycolysis Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell. When oxygen is present, Glycolysis is followed by the Krebs cycle and the Electron Transport Chain. They take place inside the mitochondria.Glycolysis is the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half. This produces 2 molecules of pyruvic acid and a 3-carbon compound.
6 Glycolysis starts by using the energy of 2 ATP molecules Glycolysis starts by using the energy of 2 ATP molecules. At the end of glycolysis, 4 ATP molecules have been produced. It has a net gain of 2 ATP molecules.NAD+ is present during glycolysis. It is the electron carrier nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.NAD+ main function in glycolysis is to carry high-energy electrons which becomes NADH and holds the electrons until they can be transferred to other molecules (to the electron transport chain)
7 The process of glycolysis does not require oxygen to occur, therefore it can supply energy to the cells when oxygen is not present.If oxygen is not present, glycolysis is followed by fermentation (anaerobic reaction).
8 FermentationFermentation is the process in which cells convert NADH and NAD+ by passing high-energy electrons back to pyruvic acid.It produces a steady supply of ATP.There are 2 main types:AlcoholicLactic acid
9 Yeasts and some microorganisms use alcoholic fermentation. The equation:pyruvic acid + NADH alcohol +carbon dioxide + NAD+Lactic acid fermentation converts glucose into lactic acid.pyruvic acid + NADH lactic acid +NAD+During excessive exercise, your muscles produce ATP by lactic acid fermentation. This occurs AFTER they have used up all of the ATP produced by cellular respiration.
10 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Ch 9 Section 2The Krebs Cycle andElectron Transport
11 An Overview:The pathways of cellular respiration are said to be aerobic because they require oxygen.At the end of glycolysis, 90% of the energy in glucose is still unused.The cell wants to use all of the energy, so it uses oxygen to accept the high energy electrons.Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain MUST HAVE oxygen to complete these final steps of cellular respiration.
12 Psst…don’t write this, let’s just think a little bit! Rolling and Folding???Some of the steps in cellular respiration take place in the membrane inside the cell structure called the mitochondrion, which has a folded inner membrane. What purpose do these folds serve?
13 Electron Transport Chain Cellular RespirationGlucose (C6H1206)+Oxygen (02)CarbonDioxide(CO2)+Water(H2O)GlycolysisKrebs CycleElectron Transport Chain
14 The Krebs Cycle Discovered in 1937 by British biochemist Hans Kreb. Hans Kreb won the Nobel Prize in 1953 for his discovery of the Krebs cycle.Krebs cycle is also known as the citric acid cycle.It is the second stage of cellular respiration.The pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis is passed to the second stage of cellular respiration, Krebs cycle.Pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of reactions.Citric acid is the first compound formed in the reactions. (AKA…citric acid cycle)
15 Stages of Krebs Cycle: STAGE 1 – Citric Acid Production Pyruvic Acid enters the mitochondria (where the rest of cellular respiration occurs)A carbon is removed, forming carbon dioxideElectrons are removed, changing NAD+ to NADHCoenzyme A joins the 2-carbon molecule to form acetyl-CoAAcetyl-CoA then adds the 2-carbon acetyl group to a 4-carbon compound, forming citric acid
16 STAGE 2 – Energy Extraction Citric Acid (from stage 1) is broken down into a 5-carbon compound, then into a 4-carbon compound.2 molecules of carbon dioxide are releasedElectrons join NAD+ and FAD to form NADH and FADH2One molecule of ATP is generatedTHE TALLY from one molecule of pyruvic acid = 4 NADH, 1 FADH2 and one molecule of ATP.
17 What happens to the Krebs Cycle products? CO2 released is the source of CO2 in your breathEach exhale you expel the CO2 produced by the Krebs cycleATP produced during the Krebs Cycle can be used for cellular activitiesNADH (electron carriers) can be used to generate huge amounts of ATP.
18 Electron TransportElectrons produced in the Krebs Cycle (NADH and FADH2 ) are passed to the electron transport chain.The electron transport chain uses the high-enegry electrons from the Krebs Cycle to convert ADP to ATP.This couples the movement of high-energy electrons with the production of ATP.Three stages:Electron transportHydrogen Ion MovementATP production (ATP synthase uses energy from H+ ions to convert ADP to ATP.
19 Totals:The complete breakdown of glucose through cellular respiration, including glycolysis, results in the produciton of 36 molecules of ATP.
20 Quick Energy vs. Long-Term Energy ATP stored can be quickly used for a few seconds of quick and intense activity.Within a few seconds, ATP is gone and lactic acid fermentation begins to produce ATP.When exercise is done, extra oxygen (from deep breaths/heavy breathing) gets rid of the lactic acid byproduct.
21 For long-term energy, your body’s only choice is cellular respiration. This supplies ATP at a slower, more consistent pace than fermentation.