2 Background The Golden Age of Greece No empire/ city-states Between Persian and Peloponnesian WarsProsperity and advancements in politics, science, philosophy, art, and architecture.510 BC 1st democracy- free male citizens could vote (Athens)
3 Greece had slaves and women were subservient, but our American democracy, founded on the same ideals, had similar limitations. SO, let’s put this into perspective!
8 Point Being…Having an established democracy for such a large portion of the population in 510BC is still admirable and impressive!
9 Science and Philosophy Advancements Pythagorus-Pythagorean theoremA2 + B2 = C2Hippocratic Oath-Hippocrates came up with oath doctors still take today.Socrates and Plato-great philosophersArchitecture-Obviously-stood the test of time , also withstood manmade and natural disasters!
12 Aristotle’s TheoryTheatre came from man’s natural desire to imitate and communicate.Examples: children, Ook and Og
13 2. RitualsMany ways of viewing this theory-functionalists, structuralists, DarwinisticA ritual is a form of knowledge reflecting a society’s understanding of the universe.Didactic-passing on traditions and knowledgeexpected to influence or control eventsused to glorifyused to entertain or give pleasureAll these functions can be served by theatre
14 RitualsTheatre and ritual employ same basic elements: music, dance, speech, masks, costumes, performers, audience and stageWhether it is ritual or theatre depends on our perception of the events function and our relationship to it
15 Other Minor TheoriesStorytelling; humans have a narrative instinct (related to Aristotle)Egyptian myths-Pyramid Texts- no evidence they were acted out or intended to be performedEgyptian religious ritual-no primary text survives to supportDespite Egyptian theories-Theatre was never developed there beyond ritual!
16 3. Greek Religious Festivals honoring Dionysis-God of harvest wine, fertility
17 Greek Festival Theory-Aristotle-Drama (tragedy) 1. Dithyramb- lengthy hymn sung and danced by 50 men with one leader/narrator and the chorus sings the refrain.BC- dithyramb became literary form-written down.3. Arion-added spoken dramatic words to dithyramb from Lesbos, poet and harpist4. Thespis-1st actor, stepped out of chorus and delivered monologue (thespian=actor)
18 The City Dionysia-where drama was first presented
19 The City Festival Dionysia Festival honoring Dionysis-where theatre originatedLasted 7-14 daysWars ceased; political concerns ignoredDuring festival everything CLOSED-even prisonsAthens in Spring end of MarchLenaia-Jan., Rural Dionysia-Dec.In Athens to commemorate Dionysus coming to AthensTragedies added to festival in 534 BCSatyr play added in 501 BCComedies added to festival in 486 BC
20 1-2 days of parades and sacrifices 2 days of dithyrambs- 1for choruses of boys and 1 for choruses of men3 days of tragedies- 1 day for each author who would present a tetralogy (3 tragedies and a satyr)1 day of comedies- 5 plays each by a different authorA few days after festival, give awards for best play and best actor, and best playwright like our Oscars and Emmys and Tonys
21 Proagon-trailer for upcoming plays, actors would perform small section for public as advertisement Archon-person responsible for picking out plays 11 months before festivalChoregus-producer, pick one playwright to sponsor for one year, paid all major expenses related to chorus: rehearsals, costumes, musicians, considered a form of paying taxesCity provided theater space, awards and playwright and actor’s salariesRepresentative Body – judge and jury to anyone who behaved improperly during festival, electedPlays based on myths or legends that the people were already familiar with.Satyr play -a short comic piece making fun of tragic subjects by half-man, half-goat dressed actors
22 TicketThis ticket allowed people in to view the plays during the festival. The city paid for the tickets of the poor so EVERYONE could attend these religious festivals!
23 TicketsPericles, ruler of Athens, established the Theoric Fund in 450 BC to assist those who were too poor to afford admission.entitled person to section, not seattribes had own section and part of that was reserved for womenViolence in the audience of the theatre was punishable by death!
24 Women attended festival because violence NEVER occurred onstage Women attended festival because violence NEVER occurred onstage! (This is debated, but there are primary source references to women attending as well.)
25 Background Golden Age Advancements in many areas 510 B.C. first democracy!
26 Theories of the Origin of Theatre Aristotle said theatre came from man’s natural desire to imitate and communicate.RitualsCame from Greek religious festival honoring Dionysis-dithyramb, literary form, Arion, Thespis.
27 City Festival Dionysia 7-14 daysAll closedChristmas equivalentCertain events on certain daysAwardsDifferent people had different jobsWomen attended festival so NO violence in plays