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Unit 3 Cells and their Structure. Levels of Organization.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3 Cells and their Structure. Levels of Organization."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 3 Cells and their Structure

2 Levels of Organization

3 Diversity of Cellular Life

4 Cell Specialization – when a group of cells work together to perform a specific job

5 The Cell Theory All living things are composed of cells Basic units of structure and function in living things Cells are produced from existing cells

6 Categories of Cells Type 1 Prokaryotes Unicellular – one cell No Nucleus – DNA free floating Example – Bacteria Used in technique called Recombinant DNA

7 Shapes of Prokaryotes Cocci = spherical (round) Bacillus = (rod shaped) Spirilla = helical (spiral)

8 These are prokaryote E. coli bacteria on the head of a steel pin.

9 What the heck is Recombinant DNA? Recombinant DNA is what you get when you combine DNA from two different sources. For example: Mouse + Human DNA Human + Bacterial DNA Viral + Bacterial DNA Human + (other) Human DNA

10 Why Make Recombinant DNA? Recombinant DNA Technology May Allow Us To: Cure or treat disease Genetically modify our foods to increase flavor, yield, nutritional value or shelf- life Better understand human genetics Clone cells or organs

11 Molecular Biology’s Best Friends: Bacteria Why use bacteria? They’re relatively simple organisms. They reproduce very quickly and asexually (this means that the “daughter” cells will contain the exact same DNA as the “parent” cell). It’s pretty easy to get DNA back into the bacteria after you’ve changed it.

12 Recombinant DNA The foreign DNA is first joined to a small, circular DNA molecule found in bacteria known as a plasmid.

13 Restriction enzymes A restriction enzyme (RE) is a specialized protein that cuts DNA in a very specific place. Molecular scissors

14 Step to Recombinant DNA

15 Steps to Recombinant DNA Step 1: Isolate (find) the human gene responsible for producing insulin and decide where you want to put it. In this case, we decide to put our human DNA into the plasmid of E. coli, a very common bacterium.

16 Step 2: Get the bacterial (plasmid) DNA out of the E. coli. We do this by basically exploding them. Step 3: Cut your human DNA and bacterial DNA with the same restriction enzyme

17 Step 4: Mix the cut human DNA, which contains the insulin gene, with the cut bacterial DNA. They’ll stick together because they were cut with the same restriction enzyme.

18 Step 5: Get your new recombinant plasmid back into the bacteria. This is easy because bacteria will take in DNA that’s floating around near them. We call this “transformation”.

19 Voila!! Now your E. coli will use its new DNA to make human insulin! Because they reproduce so quickly, you’ll soon have thousands, millions, or billions of human insulin making machines. By filtering out the bacteria after they’ve made insulin, you’ve got clean human insulin that can be packaged and given to diabetic patients.

20 Virus?

21 A virus is an infectious agent made up of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a protein coat called a capsid. Viruses have no nucleus, no organelles, no cytoplasm or cell membrane—Non-cellular vs This is why it does NOT belong to any kingdom.

22 Replication is how a virus spreads. A virus CANNOT reproduce by itself—it must invade a host cell and take over the cell activities, eventually causing destruction of the cell and killing it. (The virus enters a cell, makes copies of itself and causes the cell to burst releasing more viruses.) DNA/RNA is copied. DNA/RNA injected into cell. Virus attaches to cell. Virus copies itself. Cell bursts (lyses) and releases new viruses. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5

23 Viruses have either DNA or RNA but NOT both. Viruses with RNA that transcribe into DNA are called retroviruses. HIV Cell A flea is a parasite to a dog and is harmful to the dog. Viruses are parasites—an organism that depends entirely upon another living organism (a host) for its existence in such a way that it harms that organism. (This is the reason why HIV is so incurable.)


25 Categories of Cells Type 2 Eukaryotes Unicellular or Multicellular Has a Nucleus Example – Plant, Animal, fungi

26 How are Eukaryotes Different from Prokaryotes Eukaryotes have a nucleus that contains DNA and Prokaryotes do not

27 Types of Cells in the Human Body

28 Two Types of Eukaryotes – Animal and Plant Cell Let’s take a good look at these eukaryotes!

29 Cell Structures in common Cell MembraneNucleusRibosome Endoplasmic Reticulum VacuolesMitochondria

30 Nucleus Controls most of cells processes Contains genetic information-DNA Chromosomes inside nucleus are the threadlike structures containing genetic information

31 Nucleolus Found inside nucleus Produces ribosomes

32 Nuclear Envelope (membrane) Surrounds genetic material

33 Ribosomes Makes proteins for cell Instructions come from the nucleus

34 Endoplasmic Reticulum Synthesizing, packaging and transporting of proteins Two types – rough ER and smooth ER Network of membranes

35 Golgi Apparatus Packaging system Takes small molecules and makes larger ones then stores them Proteins

36 Vacuoles Storage areas for water, salt, proteins, carbohydrates

37 Mitochondria Synthesis and release of energy Powerhouse of cell

38 Cell Membrane Allows movement of materials in and out of cell

39 Cell Membrane Regulates what enters and exits the cell Provides protection and support Semi-permeable – allows small substances through and keeps larger substances out Made of lipids and proteins

40 Cell Membrane

41 Cell Wall (Plant Only) Provides support, protection and structure for plant cell

42 Chloroplast (Plant Only) Site of photosynthesis

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