2 Data from Earth’s Surface Section 12.3Gathering Weather DataData from Earth’s SurfaceA thermometer measures temperature.A barometer measures air pressure.
3 Data from Earth’s Surface Section 12.3Gathering Weather DataData from Earth’s SurfaceAn anemometer measures wind speed.A hygrometer measures relative humidity.
4 Data from the Upper Atmosphere Section 12.3Gathering Weather DataData from the Upper AtmosphereRadiosonde - instrument used for gathering upper-atmosphere data.A radiosonde’s sensors measure the air’s temperature, pressure, and humidity.
5 Weather Observation Systems Section 12.3Gathering Weather DataWeather Observation SystemsWeather radarA weather radar system detects specific locations of precipitation.The Doppler effect is the change in pitch or frequency that occurs due to the relative motion of a wave, as it comes toward or goes away from an observer.
6 Section 12.3Gathering Weather DataWeather radarAnalysis of Doppler radar data can be used to determine the speed and direction at which precipitation moves.
7 Section 12.3Gathering Weather DataWeather satellitesSome weather satellites use infrared imagery to measure thermal energy at night to map cloud cover or surface temperature.Some satellites use cameras that require visible light to photograph Earth and its clouds
8 Section 12.3Gathering Weather DataWeather satellitesA 3rd type of satellite imagery is called water-vapor imagery that shows moisture in the atmosphere, not just clouds.
10 Surface Weather Analysis Section 12.4Weather Analysis and PredictionSurface Weather AnalysisStation modelsA station model is a record of weather data for a particular site at a particular time.
11 Section 12.4Weather Analysis and PredictionMeteorological symbols are used to represent weather data in a station model.
12 Plotting station model data Section 12.4Weather Analysis and PredictionPlotting station model dataTo plot data nationwide and globally, meteorologists use lines that connect points of equal or constant values.
13 Plotting station model data Section 12.4Weather Analysis and PredictionPlotting station model dataIsobars - lines of equal pressureIsotherms - lines of equal temperature
14 Interpreting station model data Section 12.4Weather Analysis and PredictionInterpreting station model dataThe weather map shows isobars and air pressure data
15 Interpreting station model data Section 12.4Weather Analysis and PredictionInterpreting station model dataUsing isobars, isotherms, and station model data, meteorologists can analyze current weather conditions for a particular location.
16 Types of Forecasts Digital forecasts Section 12.4Weather Analysis and PredictionTypes of ForecastsDigital forecastsDigital forecast - created by applying physical principles and mathematics to atmospheric variables to make a prediction.
17 Section 12.4Weather Analysis and PredictionAnalog forecastsAnalog forecast - comparison of current weather patterns to similar weather patterns from the past.
18 Section 12.4Weather Analysis and PredictionShort-Term ForecastsShort-Term - most accurate and detailed forecasts because weather systems change directions, speeds, and intensities over time.Long-Term ForecastsLong-Term are less reliable than short-term forecasts.