2 Setting the StageIn 1700’s France was the most advanced country in EuropeCenter of EnlightenmentLarge populationProsperous foreign trade
3 Hidden Problems Bad Harvests High Prices High Taxes Questions raised by the Enlightenment
4 The Old Order 1770’s – France was under the Old Regime The people of France were divided into three large social classes or estates
5 Privileged Classes First Estate (1% of French population) Made up of clergy of Roman Catholic ChurchHated Enlightenment ideasPaid very few taxes
6 Privileged Classes Second Estate (2% of French pop.) Made up of rich noblesHeld highest offices in governmentDisagreed with Enlightenment ideasPaid NO TAXES
7 Not so “Privileged” Class Third Estate (97% of French population)Was made up of three sub groupsIncluded bourgeoisie (middle class businessmen), urban lower class, and peasant farmersPeasant Farmers – largest groupHad no power to influence governmentLoved Enlightenment ideasResented the wealthy First and Second EstatesPAID A TON of TAXES!!!
8 Forces of ChangeMember of the Third Estate were inspired by the success of the American Revolution (Life, Liberty, and Property!)
9 Bad Leadership Louis XVI + Maria Antoinette Weak Leaders They were left a lot of debt from previous monarchsSpent A TON of moneyTried to tax nobility!! (This is going to cause a problem!!)
10 Called a meeting to vote on this new tax This meeting was called the Estates GeneralAn assembly of representatives from all three estates would vote for this new tax
11 Problem with the Estates General Each estate’s delegates met in a separate hall to voteEach estate had one voteWhat’s the problem here???
12 The two privileged estates could always outvote the third estate. This meant that the third estate never gained political successThey needed to do something about that!
13 National AssemblyThird Estate – Named themselves the National Assembly (1789)They could pass laws and reforms in the name of the French peopleThey were locked out of their meeting room by the nobles
14 Tennis Court OathThe National Assembly broke into an indoor tennis court to create a new constitution – This became known as the Tennis Court Oath
15 King Louis XVIIn response to the Tennis Court Oath he stationed his army around VersaillesThe French people thought the King was going to attack his own peopleThey began to gather weapons for defense
16 Storming of the Bastille July 14th 1789 – An angry French mob attacked the Bastille, a French prison, to get gunpowder.The French people took over the prisonThis marked the beginning of the Revolution!!
18 The Revolution SpreadFrom Paris to the countryside the revolution spread.Peasants began burning down nobles’ farmsWomen marched on Versailles and demanded cheap bread.The monarch left France –The revolution succeeded!!
20 The Assembly Reforms France Aug 4th 1789 – Many Clergymen and Nobles joined the National Assembly. They took many powers away from the First and Second Estate.
21 Revolutionary IdealsThe Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the CitizenThis was the doc. created by the National Assembly (Like our Declaration of Independence)It stated that “all men are born and remain free and equal in rights”Freedom of speech, religion, and equal justice
22 A State-Controlled Church National Assembly took over Church landsClergy had to be electedClergy and nobles are losing power!!
23 Division in the National Assembly For 2 yrs. the Assembly fought over a new constitutionFinally created a new one in 1791Created the Legislative AssemblyIt could create laws and approve or reject declarations of war.
24 L.A. The Legislative Assembly split into three groups Those that sat on the left side of the hall (Radicals)Those that sat in the middle (Moderates)Those that sat on the right side of the hall (Conservatives)Does this sound familiar???
25 War and ExecutionDuring the French Rev. other European countries did not want this revolution to spread into their country. SO – they demanded that the French restore Louis XVI to his throne.NOT A CHANCE – Let’s go to WAR!!
26 September MassacresRumors started that the Kings supporters were going to break out of prisons.SO – revolutionaries broke into the prison and killed everyone.
27 National Convention takes over Out with Legislative Assembly (1791) and in with National ConventionUniversal male suffrageDeclared France a republic
28 JACOBINSRadicals from a distinct political organization (revolutionaries)Jean-Paul Marat – newspaper editorBelieved that anyone who supported the kind should be KILLED!!
29 Death of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette 1793 – King and queen are murdered by the newly introduced guillotine.This marks the beginning of “THE REIGN OF TERROR”!!!