3 Key IdeaEconomic and social inequalities in the “Old Regime” helped cause the French Revolution
4 The Old Order in France Old Order: 3 Estates (social classes): Social and political system in France3 Estates (social classes):First EstateSecond EstateThird Estate
5 First Estate Small percentage of Population Owned 10 Percent of land in France!Mostly members of Roman Catholic Church
6 Second Estate Two percent of population Owned 20 Percent of land in FrancePaid almost nothing in taxesMostly rich nobles
7 Third Estate 97 Percent of Population! Three Groups: Bourgeoisie (Bur zhwah ZEE)Middle ClassWell Educated and wealthyPaid high taxesNo social privilegesBelieved in Enlightenment ideas
8 Third Estate Three Groups (cont’d): The Workers The Peasants Received low wagesPaid high taxesOften out of a jobWould attack food suppliers if they couldn’t afford foodThe Peasants80 Percent of France’s population!Paid half their income in taxes to the wealthy
9 The Forces of Change Enlightenment Ideas: Economic Troubles: Members of Third Estate were spreading these ideas; inspired by American RevolutionEconomic Troubles:Despite better production and trade, debt and cost of living was increasing
10 The Forces of Change A Weak Leader: Louis XVI (16th) was indecisive on these mattersImposed taxes on Second Estate NoblesSecond Estate forced him to call a meeting called the Estates General
11 The Estates-General (1789) An assembly of representatives from all three of France’s Estates metFirst time since the middle agesIn years past, each Estate met separately and had ONE voteThird Estate (97 Percent of population) didn’t like thisThe other two estates could outvote them!
12 The Estates-General (1789) The Bourgeoisie members of Third Estate wanted a National Assembly insteadDelegates from all Three Estates would meet together in one room instead of threeThis would give Third estate huge advantage since they would have more delegates
13 The Estates-General (1789) On June 17, 1789 the delegates of the Third Estate voted to create a National AssemblyThis proclaimed an end to Absolute Monarchy in FranceFirst act of RevolutionThree days later, Third Estate was locked out of their meeting roomMet in an indoor tennis court instead, promising not to leave until a new constitution was writtenBecame known as the “Tennis Court Oath”
15 King Louis XVI ReactsOrders his mercenary Swiss guards to surround VersaillesPeople in Paris hear about this:Start to gather weapons in fear of an attack on the city by Louis and his mercenary armyOn July 14, 1789 a mob stormed a Paris prison called the Bastille, looking for weapons
16 Storming the Bastille Mob took control of the prison Killed many of its guardsParaded around Paris with heads on pikesConsidered French version of our July 4thGreat symbol of revolution
17 The Great Fear A panic spreads throughout France Mobs attack nobles Angry women, upset about the cost of bread in Paris, storm the palace of Versailles and demand the king and queen go to Paris to fix the problem.The king and queen leave Versailles and never return!
18 What We Learned Today:France was a country full of citizens who did not enjoy equal statusThese inequalities led to the beginning of the French RevolutionHow did the Enlightenment affect these changes towards revolution in France?
20 Key IdeaThe revolutionary government of France made reforms but also used terror and violence to retain power.
21 The National Assembly (1789) Ends privileges of First and Second EstatesAll French men received equal rightsReduced power of Catholic Church (First Estate)These laws divided revolutionary supportersSome supported the churchSome supported the state
22 King Louis XVI As the National Assembly assumed more power: Louis became fearful for his lifeHe and his wife, Marie Antoinette, tried to escape to the countrysideThey were caught, brought back to Paris, to live under guard night and day
23 The Legislative Assembly (1791) The National Assembly drew up laws that gave the king and queen very little powerSoon, they handed over power to a new group:The Legislative AssemblyThis became dividedSome wanted to end the revolutionSome wanted more radical changes
24 Threats from Outside France European countries feared the French Revolution would spread to their countries tooMany sent in troops to restore power to Louis XVIThe French people thought the king and queen were trying to help these soldiersMobs often attacked nobles in retaliation
25 The National Convention (1792) Government takes strong steps to protect the countryTakes away all of king’s powersNew government, The National Convention, declared Louis a common citizenAllowed them to put him to death!Ordered thousands of French men into the army
28 Maximilien Robespierre (1793) Takes over rule of FranceMade many changes to keep France safeTook away a lot of rights and freedomsKnown as the “Reign of Terror”Ended in 1794, when Robespierre was put to deathFrench people were tired of violence and wanted peace and stabilityA new and strong leader would step in to provide this…