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CHAPTER 3 Drafting a Paper. The Short Essay Essays have three parts Introduction Body Conclusion.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 3 Drafting a Paper. The Short Essay Essays have three parts Introduction Body Conclusion."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 3 Drafting a Paper

2 The Short Essay Essays have three parts Introduction Body Conclusion

3 Thesis Statement  What the essay is about Look at example on page 44

4 Paragraph Length No set amount of sentences per paragraph Use short paragraphs to isolate a point; therefore, stressing it Type written page with four or more paragraphs need rewritten Vary paragraph length

5 Paragraphs as miniature essays Topic Sentence => thesis statement Developing Details => body Closing comment or sentence => conclusion

6 Paragraph Development Developmental Paragraph (Important Term) Paragraph with a topic sentence and developing details

7 5 kinds of Paragraph Development Examples (47) support a generalization with concrete information

8 Illustrations (47-48) little story, narrative, or anecdote that embodies an idea

9 Details (48-49) component parts that make up the whole ex: individual steps in a procedure

10 Reasons answer the question why reasons are acceptable and respectable if the writer basis them on established fact, close observation and experience, or logical analysis

11 Mixed Material Mix of details, reasons, examples, and illustrations

12 Paragraph Unity (51)  Unified Paragraph (Important Term)  Every sentence is about the topic sentence  Reread first two paragraphs under paragraph unity

13 Paragraph Coherence (51 – 52) Coherent Paragraph (Important Term)  Paragraph in which a clear pattern of thought emerges Achieve Paragraph coherence in three ways:  Appropriate ordering principle  Providing transitions from one idea to another Maintaining a consistent tone

14 Ordering Principles Way to achieve coherence

15 Time You can arrange material according to when it happens past to present early to late old to new

16 Space (Physical Space) [53] Narrator stands in place and proceeds from a natural or logical order of progression left to right bottom to top

17 Importance (54) Ideas arranged in ascending order of importance or value (least to most) It is human nature to build towards a climax

18 Using Transitions (55) Passing from one subject to another Symbols, words, phrases can make a smooth passage Some transitional words: First, next, then, finally

19 Consistency of Tone Tone (Key Rhetorical Analysis Tool) Tone Defined The author’s attitude towards his or her subject and audience

20 A Few Examples Formal Personal Emotional Joking

21 To Maintain a Consistent Tone Decide who is speaking => Point of View (116) Omniscient- outside narrator (3 rd Person) knowing everything that is happening Limited- one character is used. Only know what that character knows, hears, and sees

22 First Person- narrator is a character in the writing Objective or Dramatic- moving like a movie camera recording only what you can see or hear, never delving into anyone’s mind or heart

23 Consider whether the statement should be made in the present tense or past, the active or passive voice

24 Know what diction to use Diction (A Very, Very Important Rhetorical Tool) Word choice and language used  (conflagration –vs- fire) Reread Example on page 56

25 Getting Started Introduction Have a thesis statement Do not have to write the introduction first

26 Ways to start a paper Allusion: reference to a person, work of art, event, or literature Only effective if the audience knows it short narration startling question, observation, or line of dialogue

27 definition of a key term striking contrast direct statement

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