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Invention and Arrangement

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1 Invention and Arrangement
From Patterns for College Writing Chapters 1 & 2

2 Invention (prewriting)
Before you start writing: Consider the assignment Explore your subject Decide what you want to say about it

3 Understanding the Assignment
What are you being asked to do? Look for key words: compare, contrast, analyze, describe, summarize, etc. Length (pp. 16 & 19) Purpose (pp & 19) Audience (pp. 17 – 19) Occasion (pp ) Knowledge (pp )

4 Understanding the Assignment
LENGTH OF THE PAPER The shorter the essay, the more narrow the topic needs to be A summary of a chapter or article is much shorter than the original; “an analysis of a poem will usually be longer than the poem itself” (16)

5 Understanding the Assignment
PURPOSE To persuade? Analyze? Compare/contrast? Etc. AUDIENCE Group or individual? How much does your audience know about the subject? OCCASION Academic or personal? Journal or formal essay? KNOWLEDGE How much do you know about your subject? What are your opinions about it?

6 Chap. 1, Exercises 1 & 2 Exercise 1: Decide whether the following topics are appropriate for the given limits. Why or why not? (19). Exercise 2: Consider the different way in which you speak to different people in your life (20).

7 Moving from Subject to Topic
General subjects need to be narrowed to specific topics (see p. 20). Ask yourself questions to help you narrow a topic (see p. 21). Examples: Try to narrow general subjects like “Iraq” or “Fast Food” or “American Idol”

8 Chap. 1, Exercises 3 & 4 Exercise 3: Are these topics narrow enough for a short essay? (22). Exercise 4: Generate several specific topics from each of the listed general subjects (22).

9 Forms of Prewriting Freewriting (23) Brainstorming (25)
Journal Writing (25) Clustering (27) Outlining (28)

10 Understanding Thesis & Support
A THESIS is the main idea of your essay. In your introduction, you need to clearly state your thesis, and you need to support it consistently in the body paragraphs. A thesis statement isn’t just stating your essay’s purpose, nor is it a statement of fact (30). See pp for examples Not necessary to write “My thesis is . . .” (32)

11 Thesis cont. & exercises
A thesis statement can’t include all of the points you’re going to discuss in your essay – it should state, as specifically as possible, the overall main point your essay is going to make. See Exercises 8 & 9

12 Chapter 2: Arrangement See the checklist on p. 38 to help you determine they type of essay you are writing. This will help you determine the arrangement, or organization. All essays should have an introduction, a body, and a conclusion

13 The Introduction An introduction should: Introduce your subject
Get your readers’ attention Include your thesis statement

14 The Introduction 8 ways to introduce an essay (39-40)
1). Background information 2). A definition 3). An anecdote or story 4). A question 5). A quotation 6). A surprising statement 7). A contradiction 8). A fact or statistic

15 The Body Paragraphs Develops & supports your thesis
Each body paragraph should be: Unified Coherent Well-developed

16 Body Paragraphs: Unity
Unity means that all of the ideas are related. Each sentence should relate to the main idea of the paragraph (41). Use topic sentences to state the main idea of a paragraph (usually the first sentence in a body paragraph)

17 Body Paragraphs: Coherence
If a paragraph is coherent, it means that it makes sense “its sentences are smoothly and logically connected to one another” (42). 3 Techniques to achieve coherence: Repeat key words Use pronouns to refer to key nouns from the Previous sentence Use transitions (see p. 43)

18 Body Paragraphs: Development
A well-developed paragraph contains examples, reasons, etc. that help support the main idea (thesis) of the essay Types of support (see p. 44)

19 The Conclusion Should briefly reinforce your main idea (thesis and purpose) Avoid the phrase “In conclusion” (46). 4 ways to conclude an essay: 1). Review your key points; restate your thesis 2). Recommend a course of action 3). Make a prediction 4). End with a “relevant quotation” (47)

20 Constructing an Outline
A formal outline is detailed, provides you with an exact order, specific information that you want to include Writing an outline provides you with a good chance to see whether all of your ideas work together and are well-supported See example on p. 48

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