4 Increasing Tensions Country Leader Quick Facts Dictator: individual who ruled a country through military strengthCountryLeaderQuick FactsJapanEmperor HirohitoAttacked China seeking raw materialsItalyMussoliniAttacked Ethiopia and AlbaniaGermanyAdolf HitlerNazi leader; began rebuilding military forces, persecuting Jews, and silencing opponentsSoviet UnionJosef StalinBuilt up industry and military, forced peasants into collective farms, eliminated opponents
5 The War Begins1938: Hitler’s Germany attacks France to “take back” land lost in WWI (Rhineland)Sent troops to take over Austria, Czechoslovakia, and PolandGreat Britain and France declared warSoviet Union agreed to split Poland with Germany (Non-aggression pact)By 1940, Hitler controlled Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg and a large part of France and began bombing Great Britain
6 A Neutral United States Most Americans did not want to get involved in the war, but Roosevelt wanted to help BritainHitler turned on Stalin in 1941 and invaded the Soviet UnionLend-lease: policy to lend or lease (rent) weapons to Great Britain and the Soviet UnionAmerican ships began escorting British ships in the AtlanticWhy didn’t America want to get involved?
7 “A Day that Will Live in Infamy” President Roosevelt stopped exports of oil, airplanes, aviation gasoline and metals to Japan to protest its expansion into other countriesThe Japanese attacked the U.S. Navy fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on Dec. 7, 1941Japan hoped to destroy the fleet giving them control of the Pacific OceanThe USA declared war on JapanAllied Powers: USA, Great Britain, Soviet UnionAxis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan
8 American Military Forces Millions of Americans enlisted after the attack on Pearl Harbor330,000 women joined – could not serve in combat rolesSegregation in the military kept African American and white service men in different unitsTuskegee Airmen: famous African American flyers of the Army Air ForceDo you consider the Tuskegee Airmen heroes? Why or why not?
9 The War in Europe: British and American troops won control of Africa1943: Mussolini overthrown and Italy joined the AlliesAmerican general Dwight D. Eisenhower coordinated plan to recapture EuropeD-Day: June 6, 1944 – Allied forces land in northern FranceEarly 1945: Germans pushed out of FranceApril 1945: Soviet and American troops meet and Germany surrenders – Hitler commits suicide
10 Georgia Loses a FriendPresident Roosevelt visited Georgia often at his “Little White House” in Warm SpringsHis polio symptoms were eased in the mineral springsApril 24, 1945: President Roosevelt died at Warm SpringsMillions of Georgians and Americans mounedVice President Harry Truman became president
11 The War in the Pacific1942: Japan expanded its territory throughout the Asian Pacific region1945: Allied forces began to retake Japanese controlled landsJapan refused to surrenderPresident Truman authorized the use of atomic bombs to force Japan’s surrenderEnola Gay: plane that dropped first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, JapanJapan surrendered after a second atomic bomb dropped on NagasakiOver 50 million people died in the war
12 The HolocaustThe Holocaust: name given to the Nazi plan to kill all Jewish peopleAuschwitz, Buckenwald, Dachau, Treblinka, Bergen-Belsen infamous concentration camps where Jews and others were executed6 million people killed in the Holocaust
13 Georgia During World War II 320,000 Georgians joined the armed forces – over 7,000 killedMilitary bases were built in the state, which improved the economyFarmers grew needed crops – income tripled for the average farmerLimits were put on the consumption of goods such as gasoline, meat, butter, and sugar (rationing)Students were encouraged to buy war bonds and defense stamps to pay for the warVictory Garden: small family gardens to make sure soldiers would have enough foodPOW (prisoner of war) camps in Georgia at some military bases
14 The War’s Effects on Society Everyone was expected to help in the war effortWomen began working in jobs to replace men who had gone to warG.I. Bill: law to help returning soldiers adapt to civilian lifeLow cost loans for homes or businessCollege education opportunitiesWomen and African Americans did not want to go back to the kind of life they had before the warHow was life different for women & African Americans?
15 Summarizing Thoughts Describe the impact of the Lend-Lease Act. Describe the relationship between Georgia and FDR.Evaluate the importance of Georgia’s military bases & the Savannah and Brunswick shipyards.