# Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table

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Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table
Chapter 17 Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table

Section 1 – Structure of the Atom
Look at elements and their symbols

What’s in an atom? Atom: smallest piece of matter that still is the element Nucleus: positively charged center of atom containing Protons: particle with 1+ charge Neutrons: particle with NO charge Electrons: surround nucleus in cloud and have 1- charge

Even smaller… Quarks: make up protons and neutrons NOT electrons
Found using a particle accelerator Speed up particles and smash them into each other Found 6 quarks

Models Represent things that are hard to visualize
Model of the atom has changed many times Pg. 510 in book

Today’s model of atom Electron cloud model: nucleus in middle and cloud around nucleus where electrons are most likely found

Section 2 – Masses of Atoms
Nucleus has most of mass Proton: x g Neutron: x g Electron: x g Mass of proton and neutron are about 2,000 times bigger than electron!!

Atomic Mass Need better numbers for masses Atomic Mass Unit (amu)
Proton: 1 amu Neutron: 1 amu Electron ~ negligible

Protons Identify Element
Each element has different # of protons The number of protons tells you what type of element you have Atomic Number: the number of protons

Mass Number Mass Number: SUM of protons and neutrons
# of neutrons = mass # - atomic # Carbon – 12 and Carbon – 14 Mass Number

Mass Number How many neutrons are in the Carbon-14 atom?
Sodium has a mass number of 23. How many protons and neutrons does it have? Copper – 63: how many protons and neutrons?

Isotopes Def: atoms of the same element that have different # of neutrons Isotopes: Boron – 10 and Boron – 11 Average Atomic Mass: weighted-average mass of mixture of isotopes

Calculating Average Atomic Mass
Four out of five boron atoms are boron-11 and one out of five are boron-10. What is the AAM?

Section 3 The Periodic Table

Organizing the Elements
Periodic – repeated in a pattern Late 1800s – Dimitri Mendeleev – Russian – organized elements by increasing masses Discovered a pattern with chemical properties, they repeated  Periodic

Mendeleev’s Periodic Table

Current Periodic Table
1913 – Henry Moseley – English – organized elements by increasing atomic number

The Atom and the Periodic Table
Vertical columns = Groups / Families Use A group numbering Families have similar properties

Location of Electrons In neutral atom, # of protons = # of electrons
Energy levels close to nucleus = low energy farther away = higher energy

Energy Levels and Electrons
Same group = same # of e- in outer energy level Energy levels are 1 – 7 Filled outer energy level = 8 e- Levels 3 and higher have inner sub-levels

Energy Levels and Electrons
Horizontal rows = Periods Increase by 1 p+ and 1 e- as you move right Each row ends with atom with filled outer energy level

Electron Dot Diagrams Group #s = # valence e-s (outer e-s)
Def: uses the element symbol and dots to represent outermost electrons Atoms bond to get a filled outer energy level Which groups would likely react?

Regions of the Periodic Table
Metals, Non-metals, and Metalloids

Metals Conductors of heat and electricity Luster/shine Mostly solid

Nonmetals Poor conductors of heat and electricity Many are gases
Solids are brittle

Metalloids Semiconductors of heat and electricity