# CLIL at secondary level: Principles and practice

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CLIL at secondary level: Principles and practice
Stella Kong Philip Hoare Hong Kong Institute of Education

Outline Why is CLIL at secondary level especially challenging - Two major challenges facing students Three pedagogical principles derived from these challenges Teaching materials / activities exemplifying these principles How the principles support language development

1. Why is CLIL at secondary level especially challenging – Two challenges
Challenge 1: Learning complex curriculum content Content becomes more cognitively complex, more abstract, more context reduced: The ‘three states of matter’ are easier than atomic theory; arithmetic is easier than algebra Concepts in history (e.g. chronology, cause-effect) vs narratives

Challenge 1: Learning complex curriculum content
In Chemistry, concentration of solution is also expressed in mole per unit volume of solution, and mole is chosen as the unit of the properties of solute while unit centimeter is chosen as the volume of solution. When the solute is measured in terms of mole, the unit of concentration, the unit of concentration, is mole per cubic centimeter. Or we can simply write the capital letter M. Now we move to part B, calculation of concentration in molarity given the mass of solute and volume of solution, in example 2, which is at the bottom of your notes. Here, there is 170g of sodium chloride dissolved in distilled water. And the solution is made up to 500cm3. And now you are requested to calculate the concentration of solution expressed in mole per cubic decimeter. How can we work it out? First, we have to calculate the volume of the solution in dm3 ….. Grade 10 Chemistry Measurement of the concentration of a solution Abstract and context reduced: concentration of solution not just solution (students can see solution (‘here and now’) but can’t see concentration) Cognitively complex: Students need to understand the knowledge relationship of definition (the definition of concentration of solution through the relationship between solution, solute, volume, mole) not just ‘what is a solution’

1. Why is CLIL at secondary level especially challenging – Two challenges
Challenge 2: Learning the complex language of the content (the language needed to represent complex content) A greater burden on language use because content is represented as language rather than ‘realias’ Complex vocabulary (e.g. nominalisations) and knowledge relationships expressed through the grammar and discourse Academic language becomes a focus of learning to describe and explain this content a requirement of schooling

Challenge 2: Learning the complex language of the content
In Chemistry, [concentration of solution is also expressed in mole per unit volume of solution], and mole is chosen as the unit of the properties of solute while unit centimeter is chosen as the volume of solution. When the solute is measured in terms of mole, [the unit of concentration, the unit of concentration, is mole per cubic centimeter]. Or we can simply write the capital letter M. Now we move to part B, calculation of concentration in molarity given the mass of solute and volume of solution, in example 2, which is at the bottom of your notes. Here, there is 170g of sodium chloride dissolved in distilled water. And the solution is made up to 500cm3. And now you are requested to calculate the concentration of solution expressed in mole per cubic decimeter. How can we work it out? First, we have to calculate the volume of the solution in dm3 ….. Subject-specific vocabulary: concentration of solution; mole; volume of solution; solute; mass of solute; sodium chloride Nominalisations: concentration; molarity Complex noun phrases: mole per unit volume of solution; calculation of concentration in molarity given the mass of solute and volume of solution; 170g of sodium chloride dissolved in distilled water; the concentration of solution expressed in mole per cubic decimeter Language of definition: concentration of solution is also expressed in mole per unit volume of solution; the unit of concentration is mole per cubic centimetre

2. Three pedagogical principles
Principle 1: Plan from the content The (complex) language is derived from the (complex) content: ‘with the form and sequence of language presentation dictated by content material’ (Brinton, Snow & Wesche, 2003, p.ix) Subject specialism at the secondary level: the content as focus of learning

2. Three pedagogical principles
Principle 2: Integrate content and language teaching The language is necessary for the content Not possible to teach content and language separately; no curriculum time to do so Students need to show their developing understanding of the content by using the specialist or academic language of that content

2. Three pedagogical principles
Principle 3: Teach the language of the content explicitly Students need to ‘notice’ the language to learn it Students need explicit support to learn the increasingly complex language Students need to practise using the language to learn it Plan language learning objectives

3. Teaching materials / activities exemplifying these principles

Discussion 1: Instructions
Work with a partner and think of different ways to put out a forest fire. Explain why your idea will be useful to put out the fire. Use your knowledge of the fire triangle. Use the English sentences we have practised to explain why the fire will not burn e.g. Heat is needed for burning. There will be no fire if there is no heat. If there is no heat, there can be no fire.

Discussion 2: Instructions
Look at the pictures and questions on p.21. Work with a partner and give reasons why these are good methods to put out each fire. Use your knowledge of the fire triangle. Use the English sentences we have practised to explain why the fire will not burn e.g. Heat is needed for burning. There will be no fire if there is no heat.

Grade 8 Science P1: Plan from content
The focus of the discussion is on the content: how to put out a forest fire using knowledge of the three conditions for a fire to occur P2: Integrate content and language teaching The language of the content is used / taught while teaching the content; students are asked to use the language for the discussion P3: Teach the language of the content explicitly The language is shown on PPT; The teacher mentions the language explicitly; The teacher requires students to use the language in the discussion and to report the discussion using the language

Grade 9 Geography P1: Plan from content
Content objective: Students should be able to explain how earthquakes occur at different types of plate boundary Knowledge relationships: process (sequence + cause-effect) P2: Integrate content and language teaching Content-obligatory vocabulary: plate boundary; friction; subduct; accumulated / released energy The language of sequence and the language of cause-effect: When…; As a result…; Then,… P3: Teach the language of the content explicitly Filling in blanks with content-obligatory vocabulary Filling in table with sequence of events during earthquakes at each type of plate boundaries, with the language of cause-effect given Completing a passage with the language of sequence and cause-effect to explain how an earthquake occurs Writing up a passage with the language of sequence and cause-effect + COV to explain how earthquake can occur at a particular plate boundary

4. How the principles support language development
Increasingly complex content leads to increasingly complex language use e.g. plate boundary; friction; subduct; accumulated / released energy; a process explanation The content (3 different types of plate boundaries) provides the context and purpose for recycling the same language / text structure The explicit teaching of language (contextualised and purposeful) facilitates noticing

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