Characteristics of Open Access The publisher charges directly for the service of publication/ dissemination Research permanently available via the Internet No barriers to access such as subscription costs Licensed so as to allow redistribution and reuse (Creative Commons) Archived in an internationally recognized repository (e.g. PubMed Central)
Business Model Article-processing charge (APC) covers: Editorial: handling of manuscripts Technical: development, maintenance and operation of online journal system Production: Formatting and mark up of articles, inclusion in indexing services Marketing: Making sure readers and authors know about the journal Customer service: Responding to authors/readers Web technology is used to keep costs low BioMed Centrals charges (~$1680) are at the lower end
Open Access Publishing, then and now… 20112000 And many more…
Where is Open Access in 2011? There are over 6400 open access journals in the DOAJ Over 1000 open access journals are indexed by ISI Open access to research is now mandated in over 110 institutions and by 47 funders Submissions to OA journals grew by over 35% between 2009 and 2010 Open access firmly part of the mainstream…....
The internet has the potential to radically expand access to knowledge - Digital divide or digital bridge?
African internet connectivity is improving dramatically
Many African postgraduates lack access to, and the skills for working on, computers.
ICT Levels International Telecommunications Union report (2009) Although the number of Internet users has grown faster than in other regions: Africas ICT penetration levels in 2009 are still far behind the rest of the world and very few African countries reach ICT levels comparable to global averages
Computer Aid has provided over 180,000 PCs to where they are most needed in more than 100 countries across Africa and Latin America.
BMC/Nature 10K fun run in support of ComputerAid
As connectivity improves, other access barriers become significant
Open access journals do away with access barriers
About BioMed Central Largest publisher of peer-reviewed open access journals Launched first open access journal in 2000 Became part of Springer in 2008 Now publishes 217 open access journals >100,000 peer-reviewed OA articles published All research articles published under Creative Commons license Costs covered by article processing charge (APC)
UN Millennium Development Goals Reduce child mortality, improve maternal health Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability Develop a global partnership for development
Who needs access to the results of research? Public Professionals Researchers
Research on global health issues has expanded greatly Developing world health issues are finally attracting substantial research spending Private philanthropic initiatives have played an important role
Why do research if it is not accessible where it is most relevant?
Wellcome Trust Medical Research Council US National Institute of Health Howard Hughes Medical Institute European Research Council EC Seventh Framework Program Many research funders are now requiring Open Access
Harvard University (and other members of Compact for Open Access Publishing Equity) More than 100 mandatory institution- wide open access policies world-wide http://www.eprints.org/openaccess/policysignup/ http://www.eprints.org/openaccess/policysignup/ But still very few in Africa… Many universities are now requiring open access
Parasite to Prevention - Malaria Journals scientific conference Inaugural conference October 2010, Edinburgh, Scotland Full bursaries for participants from low- income countries, supported by Gates Foundation Next conference 2012, probably in Africa
Other high profile open access journals relevant to tropical diseases
Open Access and the Developing World By providing unrestricted access to research, open access offers an opportunity to enhance scientific knowledge and output in developing countries OA provides access to medical and health literature to those directly impacted by the diseases BioMed Central operates a waiver fund, enabling researchers in developing countries to publish their work in OA journals without incurring the cost of usual APC