Presentation on theme: "Cultural Anthropology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Cultural Anthropology by Nancy Bonvillain Chapter 9Marriage and Family
2 “Kinship systems and family arrangements are basic elements in all societies (Bonvillain 2006:222).” “Anthropologists tend to make a distinction between family and household, although people often use the two words interchangeably. A household refers to a group of people occupying a common dwelling… As you read in Chapter 8, members of families are related either through descent (consanguines) or marriage (affines) Bonvillain 2006:222).”
3 “A useful starting definition of family is one given by anthropologist Kathleen Gough (1975:52). She defines the family as a “married couple or other group of adult kinfolk who co-operate economically and in the upbringing of children, and all or most of whom share a common dwelling Bonvillain 2006:223).”
4 “All societies contain units recognized as families, but there are differences in the ways in which families are formed Bonvillain 2006:223).”“There is some debate in the field about whether marriage and the family are universal constructs Bonvillain 2006:224).”
5 Patrilineal- descent and inheritance traced through men Matrilineal- descent and inheritance traced through womenSocial fatherhood- may or maynot be the same as biological paternity… man who fulfills the responsibilities of parenting, just as stepparents and adoptive parents are social parents.
6 Nuclear family- consists of one or more parents and their children, although another relative, such as a grandparents or an unmarried sibling of one of the parents, may reside in the household for a timeSingle-parent familiesExtended families consist of 3 or more generations of people, for example, parents, children, and grandparents
7 “Anthropologists as Expert Witnesses” How are anthropologists different from psychologists?
8 Joint family- family consisting of siblings with their spouses and children, sharing work and resources.
9 “Many anthropologists favor understanding the incest taboo as a means of ensuring survival by forcing people to make alliances with others outside the nuclear family. This “marry out or die out” theory emphasizes that marriage within a small unit will lead over time to the isolation and genetic homogeneity of the group, which makes it more vulnerable to population loss or even extinction.Mating outside the nuclear family reduces this risk and also leads to the formation of social alliances and bonds of reciprocity with other people. Bonvillain 2006:229).”
10 Class = social group usu Class = social group usu. Determined on the basis of a combination of birth and achievementCaste = social grouping whose membership is determined at birth and is generally inflexibleMonogamy = two people in a marriagePolygamy = three or more people in a marriageSerial monogamy = two or more spouses in a lifetime (but no at the same time)
11 Polygny = marriage between man and 2 or more women Polyandry = marriage between woman and 2 or more menSororal polygyny = marriage between a man and two or more women who are sistersGhost marriage = marriage practice among the Nuer of Sudan in which a widow marries her dead husband’s brother and in which the children ensuing from the second marriage are said to be the children of the first, dead husband.
12 Same-sex marriageBridewealth = presents given by the husband’s family to the wife’s kin before, during, or after wedding ceremonyBrideservice = a period of months or years before or after marriage during which the husband performs labor for his wife’s parentsDowry = gifts given by the wife’s family to the married couple or to the husband’s kin before, during or after the wedding ceremony
13 Arranged marriage = marriages that are arranged by the parents or other relatives of the bride and groomCourtship = period prior to marriage when a couple tests attraction to and compatibility with each otherResidence rules = rules that stipulate where a couple will reside after their marriageMatrilocal residence = pattern for residence after marriage in which the couple lives with or near the wife’s family
14 Uxorilocal = living with or near the wife’s parents Patrilocal residence = pattern of residence after marriage in which the couple lives with or near the husband’s relativesVirilocal = living with or near the husband’s parentsAvunculocal residence = patterns of residence after marriage in which the couple lives with or near the husband’s mother’s brother
15 Bilocal residence = patterns of residence after marriage in which the couple alternates between living with the wife’s kin and the husband’s kinNeolocal residence = pattern of residence after marriage in which the couple establishes a new, independent household separate from their relativesInternal warfare = warfare between closely situated villages or communitiesExternal warfare = warfare that takes place at some distance from home communities, regarding warriors’ absence from their homes for extended periods of time
16 Levirate = marriage preference rule in which a widow marries her decreased husband’s brother Sororate = marriage between a widower and his decreased wife’s sister