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Cultural Anthropology

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Presentation on theme: "Cultural Anthropology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cultural Anthropology
by Nancy Bonvillain Chapter 9 Marriage and Family

2 “Kinship systems and family arrangements are basic elements in all societies (Bonvillain 2006:222).”
“Anthropologists tend to make a distinction between family and household, although people often use the two words interchangeably. A household refers to a group of people occupying a common dwelling… As you read in Chapter 8, members of families are related either through descent (consanguines) or marriage (affines) Bonvillain 2006:222).”

3 “A useful starting definition of family is one given by anthropologist Kathleen Gough (1975:52). She defines the family as a “married couple or other group of adult kinfolk who co-operate economically and in the upbringing of children, and all or most of whom share a common dwelling Bonvillain 2006:223).”

4 “All societies contain units recognized as families, but there are differences in the ways in which families are formed Bonvillain 2006:223).” “There is some debate in the field about whether marriage and the family are universal constructs Bonvillain 2006:224).”

5 Patrilineal- descent and inheritance traced through men
Matrilineal- descent and inheritance traced through women Social fatherhood- may or maynot be the same as biological paternity… man who fulfills the responsibilities of parenting, just as stepparents and adoptive parents are social parents.

6 Nuclear family- consists of one or more parents and their children, although another relative, such as a grandparents or an unmarried sibling of one of the parents, may reside in the household for a time Single-parent families Extended families consist of 3 or more generations of people, for example, parents, children, and grandparents

7 “Anthropologists as Expert Witnesses”
How are anthropologists different from psychologists?

8 Joint family- family consisting of siblings with their spouses and children, sharing work and resources.

9 “Many anthropologists favor understanding the incest taboo as a means of ensuring survival by forcing people to make alliances with others outside the nuclear family. This “marry out or die out” theory emphasizes that marriage within a small unit will lead over time to the isolation and genetic homogeneity of the group, which makes it more vulnerable to population loss or even extinction. Mating outside the nuclear family reduces this risk and also leads to the formation of social alliances and bonds of reciprocity with other people. Bonvillain 2006:229).”

10 Class = social group usu
Class = social group usu. Determined on the basis of a combination of birth and achievement Caste = social grouping whose membership is determined at birth and is generally inflexible Monogamy = two people in a marriage Polygamy = three or more people in a marriage Serial monogamy = two or more spouses in a lifetime (but no at the same time)

11 Polygny = marriage between man and 2 or more women
Polyandry = marriage between woman and 2 or more men Sororal polygyny = marriage between a man and two or more women who are sisters Ghost marriage = marriage practice among the Nuer of Sudan in which a widow marries her dead husband’s brother and in which the children ensuing from the second marriage are said to be the children of the first, dead husband.

12 Same-sex marriage Bridewealth = presents given by the husband’s family to the wife’s kin before, during, or after wedding ceremony Brideservice = a period of months or years before or after marriage during which the husband performs labor for his wife’s parents Dowry = gifts given by the wife’s family to the married couple or to the husband’s kin before, during or after the wedding ceremony

13 Arranged marriage = marriages that are arranged by the parents or other relatives of the bride and groom Courtship = period prior to marriage when a couple tests attraction to and compatibility with each other Residence rules = rules that stipulate where a couple will reside after their marriage Matrilocal residence = pattern for residence after marriage in which the couple lives with or near the wife’s family

14 Uxorilocal = living with or near the wife’s parents
Patrilocal residence = pattern of residence after marriage in which the couple lives with or near the husband’s relatives Virilocal = living with or near the husband’s parents Avunculocal residence = patterns of residence after marriage in which the couple lives with or near the husband’s mother’s brother

15 Bilocal residence = patterns of residence after marriage in which the couple alternates between living with the wife’s kin and the husband’s kin Neolocal residence = pattern of residence after marriage in which the couple establishes a new, independent household separate from their relatives Internal warfare = warfare between closely situated villages or communities External warfare = warfare that takes place at some distance from home communities, regarding warriors’ absence from their homes for extended periods of time

16 Levirate = marriage preference rule in which a widow marries her decreased husband’s brother
Sororate = marriage between a widower and his decreased wife’s sister

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