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Ch Review1 Review Chapter Microcomputer Systems Hardware, Software, and the Operating System.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch Review1 Review Chapter Microcomputer Systems Hardware, Software, and the Operating System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch Review1 Review Chapter Microcomputer Systems Hardware, Software, and the Operating System

2 Ch Review2 Overview Operating system of choice today is Windows 95/98

3 Ch Review3 Overview Previously MS-DOS was the operating system of choice.

4 Ch Review4 Overview When using MS-DOS …  only one application can be run at any given time  there is no sharing of resources

5 Ch Review5 Overview When using Windows …  more than one program can run at any given time  data can be shared between programs

6 Ch Review6 Overview Still important to know DOS even though Windows 95 OS no longer requires it.

7 Ch Review7 An Introduction to Computers Widespread use of computers in all sectors of our lives.

8 Ch Review8 Categories of Computers Four major categories of computers: Ê Supercomputer Ë Mainframe Ì Minicomputer Í Microcomputer

9 Ch Review9 Computer Components

10 Ch Review10 Computer Components For a computer to function it needs …  hardware  software  data

11 Ch Review11 Microcomputer Hardware Components System configuration … the basic hardware components of a complete operating system.

12 Ch Review12 Components Microcomputer Hardware Components

13 Ch Review13 The System Unit System unit … houses the electronic and mechanical parts of the computer.

14 Ch Review14 The System Unit

15 Ch Review15 Central Processing Unit Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) … the brains of the computer.

16 Ch Review16 Central Processing Unit Bus … a connection or path (wires) between the CPU and the input/output devices.

17 Ch Review17 Random Access Memory Random Access Memory ( RAM ) … the workspace of the computer.

18 Ch Review18 Cache Memory Cache Memory … a place in memory where data can be stored for quick access.

19 Ch Review19 Read-only Memory Read-only memory (ROM) … designed to hold permanently stored programs installed by the computer manufacturer.

20 Ch Review20 Read-only Memory ROM … is sometimes called Firmware.

21 Ch Review21 Adapter Cards Adapter Cards … printed circuit boards installed in the computer to allow installation and use of peripheral devices.

22 Ch Review22 Controllers Controller … determines number and kinds of devices that can be attached to a computer.

23 Ch Review23 Input/Output Adapter Cards Input/Output ( I/O ) … the process of data and program instructions going in and out of the CPU.

24 Ch Review24 Input/Output Adapter Cards Input/Output Adapter Cards … enables communication with devices.

25 Ch Review25 Input/Output Adapter Cards A typical I/O card has both a …  serial port (COM port)  parallel port (LPT port)

26 Ch Review26 Input/Output Adapter Cards

27 Ch Review27 Peripherals: Input Devices Input Devices … used to get data or information into computer.

28 Ch Review28 Peripherals: Output Devices Output Devices … used to view data or information that is in the computer.

29 Ch Review29 Output Devices: Monitors The computer monitor is a common output device.

30 Ch Review30 Output Devices: Monitors Monitor resolution is measured by the number of pixels on the screen.

31 Ch Review31 Output Devices: Monitors There are two types of monitors available: Ê Interlaced Ë Non-interlaced

32 Ch Review32 Output Devices: Monitors A video display adapter card (video card) controls the monitor.

33 Ch Review33 Output Devices: Printers The printer is an output device that is used to produce a hard ( paper ) copy.

34 Ch Review34 Modems Other output devices include …  phone modems  cable modems

35 Ch Review35 Modems MOdulator/DEModulator ( Modem ) … translates digital signals into analog signals that travel over phone or cable lines.

36 Ch Review36 Disks and Disk Drives External ( Secondary ) storage media … is needed in order to save information permanently.

37 Ch Review37 Disks and Disk Drives Two types of common secondary storage media are: Ê Floppy disks Ë Hard disks

38 Ch Review38 Capacity Measurement: Bits and Bytes A computer is made up of switches that are either in an “on” state or an “off” state.

39 Ch Review39 Capacity Measurement: Bits and Bytes Binary digit ( BIT ) … the smallest unit that a computer can recognize.

40 Ch Review40 Capacity Measurement: Bits and Bytes Byte … a unit of measurement that is comprised of eight bits.

41 Ch Review41 Capacity Measurement: Bits and Bytes Computer storage and memory are both measured in bytes.

42 Ch Review42 Floppy Disks The two types of floppy disks are the … Ê 3 - 1/2 inch disk Ë 5 - 1/4 inch disk

43 Ch Review43 Floppy Disks

44 Ch Review44 CD-ROMs Compact disc (CD) … a common transport and storage device for software.

45 Ch Review45 CD-ROMs DVD is an enhancement of CD-ROM technology.

46 Ch Review46 Removable Disks The removable disk is another type of external storage media.

47 Ch Review47 Hard Disks The hard disk …  is a non-removable disk  holds more info than a removable floppy disk

48 Ch Review48 Hard Disks

49 Ch Review49 Dividing the Disk Disks are divided into numbered tracks and sectors.

50 Ch Review50 Dividing the Disk

51 Ch Review51 Disk Drives Disk drive … writes information to and from a disk.

52 Ch Review52 Disk Drives Cluster … basic unit of disk storage.

53 Ch Review53 Disk Drives

54 Ch Review54 Device Names Device … a place for a computer to send or receive information.

55 Ch Review55 Device Names

56 Ch Review56 Software Software is … the step-by-step instructions that tell the computer what to do.

57 Ch Review57 Software Two categories of software: Ê Application software Ë System software

58 Ch Review58 Software System software is divided into three categories: Ê Operating systems Ë System utility Ì Programming language processor

59 Ch Review59 Software The OS supervises …  the processing of application programs  all computer input/output

60 Ch Review60 Software The term Operating System is generic.

61 Ch Review61 Software In Windows 95/98, “MS-DOS prompt” is the same as …  “command line”  “command prompt”

62 Ch Review62 Operating System Fundamentals Operating system (OS) … is a program that is always working.

63 Ch Review63 Operating System Fundamentals ROM-BIOS … provides the interface between the hardware and the OS.

64 Ch Review64 Operating System Fundamentals The Boot Up Process: 1. Runs a program in ROM-BIOS which does a self check. 2. ROM-BIOS checks to see if disk drive is installed. 3. Looks for boot record. 4. When proper boot record found, reads record from disk into RAM. 5. Turns control over to this program.

65 Ch Review65 Operating System Fundamentals Command processor … the program that the user communicates and interacts with.

66 Ch Review66 Operating System Fundamentals The OS utilizes two types of commands: Ê Internal Ë External

67 Ch Review67 Operating System Fundamentals An executable program will have a file name with one of the three following file extensions … .com .exe .bat

68 Ch Review68 Networks A network …  is two or more computers connected together  enables users to communicate and share resources

69 Ch Review69 Networks Two kinds of networks: Ê LAN Ë WAN

70 Ch Review70 Networks

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