Presentation on theme: "ESOPHAGUS& STOMACH By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany."— Presentation transcript:
1 ESOPHAGUS& STOMACHBy Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
2 By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany OBJECTIVESBy the end of this lecture the student should be able to:Describe the anatomy of the esophagus: extent, length, parts, strictures, relations, blood supply, innervation and lymphatics.Describe the anatomy of the stomach: location, shape, parts, relations, blood supply, innervation and lymphatics.By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
3 ESOPHAGUS It is a tubular structure about 25 cm long. It begins as the continuation of the pharynx at the level of the 6th cervical vertebra.It pierces the diaphragm at the level of the 10th thoracic vertebra to join the stomach.It is divided into 3 parts:1- Cervical.2- Thoracic.3- Abdominal.CervicalthoracicAbdominal
4 RELATIONS CERVICAL PART Posteriorly: Vertebral column. Laterally: Lobes of the thyroid gland.Anteriorly:Trachea and the recurrent laryngeal nerves.By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
5 By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany THORACIC PARTIn the thorax, it passes downward and to the left through superior then to posterior mediastinumAt the level of the sternal angle, the aortic arch pushes the esophagus again to the midline.By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
6 By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany Thoracic partANTERIOR RELATIONSTracheaLeft recurrent laryngeal nerveLeft principal bronchusPericardiumLeft atriumBy Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
7 By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany Thoracic partPOSTERIOR RELATIONSBodies of the thoracic vertebraeThoracic ductAzygos veinRight posterior intercostal arteriesDescending thoracic aorta (at the lower end)By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
8 By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany LATERAL RELATIONOn the Right side:Right mediastinal pleuraTerminal part of the azygos vein.On the Left side:Left mediastinal pleuraLeft subclavian arteryAortic archThoracic ductBy Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
9 ESOPHAGUS AND LEFT ATRIUM There is a close relationship between the left atrium of the heart and esophagus.What is the clinical application?A barium swallow in the esophagus will help the physician to assess the size of the left atrium (dilation) as in case of long standing mitral stenosis or heart failure.
10 RELATIONS IN THE ABDOMEN Fibers from the right crus of the diaphragm form a sling around the esophagus.At the opening of the diaphragm, the esophagus is accompanied by:The two vagiBranches of the left gastric vesselsLymphatic vessels.In the Abdomen, the esophagus descends for 1.3 cm and joins the stomach.Anteriorly, left lobe of the liver.Posteriorly, left crus of the diaphragm.
11 ESOPHAGEAL CONSTRICTIONS The esophagus has 3 anatomic constrictions.The first is at the junction with the pharynx(pharyngeoesophageal junction).The second is at the crossing with the aortic arch and the left main bronchus.The third is at the junction with the stomach.They have a considerable clinical importance.Why?
12 They may cause difficulties in passing an esophagoscope. In case of swallowing of caustic liquids (mostly in children), this is where the burning is the worst and strictures develop.The esophageal strictures are a common sites of the development of esophageal carcinoma.In this picture what is the importance of the scale?
13 ARTERIAL SUPPLY Upper third by the inferior thyroid artery. The middle third by the thoracic aorta.The lower third by the left gastric artery.By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
14 VENOUS DRAINAGEThe upper third drains in into the inferior thyroid veins.The middle third into the azygos veins.The lower third into the left gastric vein, which is a tributary of the portal vein.NB. Esophageal varices.
15 By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany LYMPH DRAINAGEThe upper third is drained into the deep cervical nodes.The middle third is drained into the superior and inferior mediastinal nodes.The lower third is drained in the celiac lymph nodes in the abdomen.By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
16 By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany NERVE SUPPLYIt is supplied by sympathetic fibers from the sympathetic trunks.The parasympathetic supply comes form the vagus nerves.Inferior to the roots of the lungs, the vagus nerves join the sympathetic nerves to form the esophageal plexus.The left vagus lies anterior to the esophagus.The right vagus lies posterior to it.By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
17 The abdominal cavity is divided into 9 compartments: by:2 vertical and 2 horizontal planesVertical planes:2 Midclavicular lines.Horizontal planes:Subcostal and Intertubercular lines.8th costalL1
18 LOCATIONSTOMACHThe stomach is a dilated part of the alimentary canal.It is located in the upper part of the abdomen.It extends from beneath the left costal margin into the epigastric and umbilical regions.Most of the stomach is protected by the lower ribs.It is roughly J-shaped.By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
19 PARTS 2 Orifices: Cardiac orifice Pyloric orifice 2 Borders: Greater curvatureLesser curvature2 Surfaces:Anterior surfacePosterior surface3 Parts:FundusBodyPylorus:The pylorus is formed of 3 partsPyloric antrumPyloric canalPyloric sphincterBy Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
20 CARDIAC ORIFICE It is the site of the gastro- esophageal sphincter. It is a physiological rather than an anatomical, sphincter.Consists of a circular layer of smooth muscle (under vagal and hormonal control).Function:Prevents (GER) regurgitation (reflux)NB. Notice the abrupt mucosal transition from esophagus to stomach (Z- line)CARDIAC ORIFICEBy Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
21 FUNDUS Dome-shaped Located to the left of the cardiac orifice Usually full of gas.In X-Ray film it appears blackBy Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
22 BODY Extends from: to A constant notch on the lesser curvature The level of the fundustoThe level of Incisura Angularis:A constant notch on the lesser curvature
23 By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany LESSER CURVATUREForms the right border of the stomach.Extends from the cardiac orifice to the pylorus.Attached to the liver by the lesser omentum.By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
24 GREATER CURVATURE Forms the left border of the stomach. Extends from the cardiac orifice to the pylorus.Its upper part is attached to the spleen by gastrosplenic ligamentIts lower part is attached to the transverse colon by the greater omentum.
25 PYLORIC ANTRUM AND PYLORUS The pyloric antrum extends from Incisura angularis to the pylorusThe pylorus is a tubular part of the stomachIt lies in the transpyloric planeIt has a thick muscular end called pyloric sphincter.The cavity of the pylorus is the pyloric canal.
26 ANTERIOR RELATIONS Anterior abdominal wall Left costal margin Left pleura & lungDiaphragmLeft lobe of the liverBy Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
27 POSTERIOR RELATIONS Stomach Bed: Peritoneum (Lesser sac) Left crus of diaphragmLeft suprarenal glandPart of left kidneySpleenSplenic arteryPancreasTransverse mesocolonThey are separated from the stomach by Peritoneum (Lesser sac except the spleen)
28 SURFAC ANATOMY OF THE STOMACH Cardiac orifice lies opposite the left seventh costal cartilage 2.5 cm. from the sternum ,(T10).Pyloric orifice lies on transpyloric plane1 cm. to the right of the middle line, at the level of L1.Lesser curvature a curved line, concave to the right joining these 2 points.The fundus : reaches to the left fifth intercostal space a little below the apex of the heart.Greater curvature is a curved line drawn from the cardiac orifice to the summit of the fundus, then downward and to the left, finally turning medial toward the pyloric orifice, passing through the intersection of the left lateral with the transpyloric line.
29 ARTERIES5 arteries:As it is derived from the foregut all are branches of the celiac trunk1- Left gastric artery:It is a branch of celiac artery.Runs along the lesser curvature.2- Right gastric artery:From the hepatic of celiac.Runs to the left along the lesser curvature.
30 ARTERIES 3-Short gastric arteries – arise from the splenic artery. Pass in the gastrosplenic ligament.4- Left gastroepiploic artery:from splenic arteryPass in the gastrosplenic ligament, along the greater curvature5- Right gastroepiploic artery:from the gastroduodenal artery of hepatic .Passes to the left along the greater curvature.ARTERIES
31 VEINS All of them drain into the portal circulation. The right and left gastric veins drain directly into the portal vein.The short gastric veins and the left gastroepiploic vein join the splenic vein.The right gastroepiploic vein drain in the superior mesenteric vein.By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
32 By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany LYMPH DRAINAGEThe lymph vessels follow the arteries.They first drain to the:Left and right gastric nodesLeft and right gastroepiploic nodes and theShort gastric nodesUltimately, all the lymph from the stomach is collected at the celiac nodes.By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem & Dr. Jamila El Medany
33 NERVE SUPPLYSympathetic fibers are vasoconstrictors, antiperistaltic and carry pain sensation. It is derived from the celiac plexus.Parasympathetic fibers from both vagi are for motility & secretory Anterior vagal trunk:Formed from the left vagusSupply the anterior surface of the stomachGives off a hepatic branch and from it - a branch to the pylorus.Posterior vagal trunk:Formed from the right vagusSupply the posterior surface of the stomachGives off a large branch to the celiac and the superior mesenteric plexuses.