# ENERGY and Work.

## Presentation on theme: "ENERGY and Work."— Presentation transcript:

ENERGY and Work

What is energy? Ability to make something happen Or work to happen

Potential and Kinetic Energy
Potential energy is energy that is stored in an object. Kinetic energy is energy of motion.

Potential energy Potential energy (P.E.) is the ability of an object to do work because of its position. work done by the object = P.E. lost work done on the object = P.E. gained.

Potential energy Potential energy is a type of energy that is "hidden" in some way. It is a type of energy that can be converted to other forms and often is related to some attractive or pushing forces.

Types Elastic Potential Energy
Anything that can act like a spring or a rubber band can have elastic potential energy. Let's take the rubber band or a spring Wind up toys store energy this way

Gravitational Potential Energy
There is a constant attractive force between the Earth and everything surrounding it, due to gravity. To lift something off the ground it takes energy, so just by lifting an object, that object now has higher gravitational potential energy.

Gravitational potential energy is typically converted into kinetic energy (an object falling) before it is converted into any other type of energy. Hydroelectric power is generated this way. As the water falls, it turns a turbine, which pushes electrons around, creating an

Changing GPE What does it depend on?

Chemical Potential Energy
A chemical bond can be thought of as an attractive force between atoms. Because of this, atoms and molecules can have chemical potential energy. Anytime two atoms form a strong covalent or ionic bond or two molecules form a chemical energy is converted into other forms of energy, usually in the form of heat and light.

Strong bonds have low chemical energy and weak bonds have high chemical energy.

Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.
Any object that is moving has kinetic energy. Ball Moving Horizontally Kinetic Energy Equation m = mass (in kg), v = velocity (in m/s), and KE = kinetic energy (in J = joules).

Remember, the units for energy are Joules - Kilogram . meters / sec2

Practice Problems: 1. A 12 pound bowling ball is held 20 feet above the floor. Calculate its GPE. 2. A 2kg object is traveling at 4m/s. Calculate its KE.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy: the total matter and energy in the universe is always conserved.

Can energy be changed into matter?
Think of matter and energy as two forms of the same thing that can be converted from one to another.

E=mc2 While it is possible to change matter into energy and energy into matter, the sum of the two is always constant. Einstein's equation shows this relationship. E = Energy (Joules) m = mass (kg) c = speed of light (300,000 km/s)

The two most common energy conversions are:
Potential energy changing into kinetic energy. Kinetic energy changing into potential energy

Mechanical energy= potential energy + kinetic energy
Mechanical is energy due to the motion of an object

Mechanical energy

Forms of energy Mechanical Chemical Heat Electromagnetic nuclear

Mechanical energy There are two main types of mechanical energy.
Motion energy: This is the energy something has because it is moving Stored mechanical energy: This is energy something has stored in it because of its height above the ground or because it is stretched or bent or squeezed

Electrical energy The energy that flows through wires and powers the lights and appliances in your home. The energy is in the form of moving electrons

Electromagnetic energy
Visible light or radiant energy X rays Radio waves Microwaves This form of energy can travel through a vacuum

Concept Understanding:
1. Assume that all the matter in your body could be converted into energy, how many Joules of energy would that be? Hint: 1 pound = 0.5 kg Show all your work used to solve this problem. 2. Give one example of each of the following energy conversions: Chemical energy changing into heat energy. Heat energy changing into mechanical energy. Nuclear energy changing into heat energy. Mechanical energy changing into electromagnetic energy.

Conservation Matter can be changed into energy
Energy can be changed into matter Neither can be created or destroyed

Work Develop a definition from the activity

Work W=force x distance W=fxd
The unit is the newton/meter also called joule Work is force exerted through a distance Complete activity pg 303

Measure work To measure work you must measure the force in the direction of motion Complete problems #3, 7, and 8 on page 303

Power Power=work/time It is a rate The unit is the watt---W or 1 j/s

Analysis and conclusion
1 When the mass is released from the same height with the interrupter, is the ending height the same as its starting height? Use your data to support

2 Analyze the energy transfers
2 Analyze the energy transfers. At what point along a single swing does the mass have the greatest kinetic energy? The greatest potential energy

3 Do the results support your hypothesis?
4 Compare the starting heights to the ending heights of the mass. Is there a pattern? Can you account for the observed behavior?

5 Do your results support the law of conservation of energy
5 Do your results support the law of conservation of energy? Why or why not? 6 What would happen if the mass of the bob was increased?