 # SI ENERGY TYPES AND TRANSFORMATIONS. HOW ARE WORK AND ENERGY RELATED? When work is done, energy is transferred to an object (or system). Energy is the.

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SI ENERGY TYPES AND TRANSFORMATIONS

HOW ARE WORK AND ENERGY RELATED? When work is done, energy is transferred to an object (or system). Energy is the capacity (or ability) to do work. Ex) pulling back on a sling shot, your hand does work on the elastic and transfers energy to it.

HOW IS ENERGY MEASURED? The amount of energy transferred is measured by how much work is done on the object. Energy and work are both measured in Joules (J); the calorie is another unit of energy.

POTENTIAL ENERGY Also known as, stored energy. Energy an object has because of its position.

ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY Energy that is stored in any type of elastic material (rubber bands, bungee cords) Ex) the energy stored in the stretched rubber band of the slingshot before it is released; it can do work later (stored energy).

GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY Energy related to an object’s vertical position; resulting from the gravitational attraction between two objects. Ex) a book on top of a table; a car at the top of a hill gravitational potential energy depends on: mass, height, and acceleration due gravity Equation: P.E.= m x g x h

GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY Remember, free-fall acceleration due to gravity (g) on Earth is 9.8 m/s 2. Because mass x gravity is equal to weight or force (measured in Newtons) the equation for P.E. is like work=Fxd; the distance for P.E. is actually height (h).

KINETIC ENERGY Energy of a moving object due to the object’s velocity. K.E. depends upon: mass and velocity (or speed). Equation: K.E.= ½ x m x v 2 *only the velocity number gets squared! K.E. depends more on the velocity than on the mass. Why? Think about car crashes at higher speeds!! Double the speed = quadruple the energy. (mass of the car is constant)

MECHANICAL ENERGY Amount of work an object can do because of its kinetic and potential energies. The sum of the P.E. and K.E. in a system. Can see it, either because of the object’s motion or because of its position.

NONMECHANICAL ENERGY Energy that lies at the level of atoms that does not affect the motion of the object on a large scale or in the bigger picture; can’t observe it directly, but you know it is there.

CHEMICAL ENERGY When bonds break they release energy; you get this energy when you eat and digest food. Plants use photosynthesis to turn light energy into chemical energy. This energy is trapped in the bonds of the food.

NUCLEAR ENERGY Energy released during nuclear fusion (combining the nuclei of 2 or more atoms) and nuclear fission (splitting of a nucleus). Both cause a small amount of mass to be converted to a large amount of energy (E=mc 2 ). This occurs in nuclear reactors, nuclear bombs, and stars.

ELECTRICAL ENERGY Energy from the flow of electrons through wires or other conducting materials.

LIGHT Can carry energy across empty space (a vacuum) in the form of electromagnetic waves.

THERMAL ENERGY Energy a substance has because of its temperature

LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Energy can not be created nor destroyed, it can only change forms Example: Dropping an object: potential  kinetic Windmill turning: kinetic  electrical

OBJECT BEING LIFTED BY A CRANE

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