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The Art of Rhetoric: Persuasive Techniques in Advertising

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1 The Art of Rhetoric: Persuasive Techniques in Advertising
Ethos, Logos, Pathos

2 Introduction Where do you encounter advertising?
What specific advertisements “stick in your head?” What makes these advertisements memorable? Do you think advertisements have an effect on your personal interests?

3 What Advertisers Do Advertisers carefully construct their ads to make them memorable & appealing to consumers (music, catchy slogans, celebrity appearances, appeal of the product, etc.). The ways they try to convince us, the consumers, to buy products is similar to the ways of persuasive writing.

4 One of Ms. Newton’s Favorite Ads

5 How They’re Manipulating Us
What made that commercial endearing? What company was the commercial for? What does the company do? Hmm…. Let’s look at the background behind how advertisers convince us to buy their products.

6 Background Video – Complete the Notes Page
resources/lesson-plans/video/persuasive- techniques-advertising-1166.html

7 Logos: Evidence & Statistics
Logos = logic To make the audience THINK about what is presented to it (statistics, facts, authorities, etc.; very straight-forward & not “fluff”) Has a very scientific, factual approach One glass of Florida orange juice contains 75% of your daily Vitamin C needs Nine out of ten dentists agree that Crest is better than any other brand.

8 Ethos: Credible, Reliable, Honest
Ethos: Ethics To make the audience decide RIGHT or WRONG about what is being presented to it (political issues, national beliefs, religious issues, etc.) Typically has contrasting colors symbolizing the differences between good & evil American dieters choose Lean Cuisine. Catherine Zeta-Jones makes us want to switch to T-mobile.

9 Pathos = Emotion To make the audience FEEL something about what is presented to it (children, animals, illness, memories, etc. “tugs at your heart strings”) Positive emotion: an image of people enjoying themselves while drinking Pepsi Negative emotion: a person having back problems after buying the “wrong mattress” Fear/Guilt: images of starving children persuade you to send money to charity

10 Can Advertisements Have More Than One Appeal?
Yes! The more appeals used in an advertisement the more likely the consumer is to connect with it (and ultimately buy it).

11 Pathos, Logos or Ethos? A child is shown covered in bug bites after using an inferior bug spray. Tiger Woods endorses Nike. Sprite Zero is 100% sugar free.

12 Pathos, Logos or Ethos? A 32-oz. bottle of Tide holds enough to wash 32 loads. A commercial shows an image of a happy couple riding in a Corvette. Cardiologists recommend Ecotrin more than any other brand of aspirin.

13 Pathos, Logos, or Ethos? Advil Liquid-Gels provide up to 8 hours of continuous pain relief. Miley Cyrus appears in Oreo advertisements. People who need more energy drink Red Bull Energy Drinks. A magazine ad shows people smiling while smoking cigarettes.

14 Pathos, Logos, Ethos in Writing
Authors also use these devices in writing.

15 Logos in Non-fiction From Al Gore's speech "A Generational Challenge to Repower America" July 17th, 2008, “Two major studies from military intelligence experts have warned our leaders about the dangerous national security implications of the climate crisis, including the possibility of hundreds of millions of climate refugees destabilizing nations around the world. Just two days ago, 27 senior statesmen and retired military leaders warned of the national security threat from an “energy tsunami” that would be triggered by a loss of our access to foreign oil. Meanwhile, the war in Iraq continues, and now the war in Afghanistan appears to be getting worse.” Gore paraphrases military intelligence experts as well as senior statesmen and retired military leaders. These are logical sources to support his claim. He also draws a connection between their findings and his protest of the war.

16 Ethos in Non-fiction From Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech: He quoted Lincoln while standing in front of the Lincoln Memorial. He also quoted the United States Constitution. Quoting Lincoln lends gravity and authority to his speech; Lincoln is recognized as the emancipator of the slaves, and King was speaking to equal rights for African- Americans. In quoting the Constitution, he was referring to the highest law in the country.

17 Pathos in Non-fiction Hilary Rodham Clinton Concession Speech, Washington D.C., June 7, 2008: “Although we weren't able to shatter that highest, hardest glass ceiling this time, thanks to you, it's got about 18 million cracks in it.” This is a very emotional appeal for feminist voters. Clinton alludes to the glass ceiling that prevents women from reaching the highest levels of business and power. She points out that, thanks to her receiving 18 million votes the ceiling has cracks in it. People who voted for her will feel very emotional about the attempt – and failure – to shatter that glass ceiling.

18 Ethos in Literature Example from Antigone
“But look who comes, the lucky Son of Menoeceus: The man the gods have made our king” (198).

19 Logos in Literature Example from Antigone
“Remind ourselves that we are women and as such are not made to fight with men” (193).

20 Pathos in Literature Example from Antigone
“But I from the shadows hear them: hear a city’s sympathy for this girl, because no woman ever faced so unreasonable, so cruel a death, for such a generous cause.”

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